Full Assignment Unit 202
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Unit 202: Health & Safety
Explain the difference between legislation, codes of practice and workplace policies
A legislation is a law made by the government that dictate the general rules. The code of practice is more like how to put in to practice the legislation setting up the standards and the ethics. The work place policies are “rules” made by the employer that may be different from an employer to another but never in contrast to the legislation or the code of practice.
Candidates are required to outline the main employee and employer’s responsibilities under the following health and safety legislation:
Health & Safety at Work Act
Provide and maintain safety equipment and safe systems of work…show more content…
To ensure all PPE is put back in the allocated spots for others to use.
To make sure PPE is worn when a therapist is prone to a risk.
Dispose of PPE correctly.
Ensure the item of PPE used is clean and ready to be used again.
The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH)
To provide employees with a safe working environment.
Make sure employees are well informed and trained
To read all the necessary information about COSHH
To use all dangerous chemicals and related equipment appropriately
To inform the employers or management if anything happens that could become a hazard
The Electricity at Work Regulations
To comply with the regulations as far as matters are under their control.
To inform any employers of the regulation and how it applies to them.
To co – operate with their employer.
To be informed on the electricity at work regulations in order to full fill health and safety.
To take responsible care of the health and safety to him/herself and of other persons who may be affected by their actions.
Presentation on theme: "NT1210 Introduction to Networking"— Presentation transcript:
1 NT1210 Introduction to Networking
Unit 8:Chapter 8, The Internet Protocol (IP)1
2 Class Agenda 2/9/16 Learning Objectives Quiz 2 in the next class.
Lesson Presentation and DiscussionsLab Activities will be performed in class.Assignments will be given in class.Break Times. 10 Minutes break in every 1 Hour.Note: Submit all Assignment and labs due today.
3 Objectives Explain the functionality of typical network protocols.
Plan and design an IP network by applying subnetting skills.Categorize TCP/IP protocols according to network model layers.Describe how TCP/IP addressing moves data packets through networks.3
4 Introducing the Internet Protocol (IP)
TCP/IP Model review: Layers 1 and 2 ProtocolsExample LAN/WAN Standards and Types in the TCP/IP Model4Figure 8-1
5 Introducing the Internet Protocol (IP)
TCP/IP Model review: Upper layers define non-physical (logical) networking functionsVarious Perspectives on the TCP/IP Model and Roles5Figure 8-2
6 Introducing the Internet Protocol (IP)
Network Layer protocolsIP: Most important protocol defined by Network layerAlmost every computing device on planet communicates, and most use IP to do soNetwork layer also defines other protocols6
7 Introducing the Internet Protocol (IP)
Network Layer protocols: Part 1NameFull NameCommentsICMPInternetwork Control Message ProtocolMessages that hosts and routers use to manage and control packet forwarding process; used by ping commandARPAddress Resolution ProtocolUsed by LAN hosts to dynamically learn another LAN host’s MAC addressDHCPDynamic Host Configuration ProtocolUsed by host to dynamically learn IP address (and other information) it can useDNSDomain Name System/ServiceAllows hosts to use names instead of IP address; needs DNS server to translate name into corresponding IP address (required by IP routing process)Other TCP/IP Network Layer Protocols7Table 8-1
8 Introducing the Internet Protocol (IP)
Network Layer protocols: Part 2NameFull NameCommentsRIPRouting Information ProtocolApplication that runs on routers so that routers dynamically learn IP routing tables (used to route IP packets correctly); open standard protocol defined in RFC 2453EIGRPEnhanced Interior Gateway Routing ProtocolProprietary routing protocol owned by Cisco SystemsOSPFOpen Shortest Path FirstOpen source routing protocol defined in RFC 2328Other TCP/IP Network Layer Protocols8Table 8-1
9 Introducing the Internet Protocol (IP)
IP defines many functions that work together with one ultimate goal: To send data from one host to another host through any TCP/IP network.Most important functions include:Creating end-to-end physical paths through TCP/IP network by interconnecting physical networks (LANs and WANs) using routersIdentifying individual hosts and groups of hosts using IP addressingRouting (forwarding) IP packets to correct destination hostExample of a Post Office Sorting a Letter Sent to Hollywood, California9Figure 8-4
10 Introducing the Internet Protocol (IP)
IPv4 Addresses32 bitsExpressed in binary and dotted decimal formsIPv4 Header Format and Fields10Figure 8-8
11 Introducing the Internet Protocol (IP)
Converting binary IP address to dotted decimalSeparate 32 bits into 4 groups of 8 bits eachDo binary-to-decimal conversion of each 8-bit number (each decimal value between 0 and 255)Put period (dot) between each decimal numberGeneric View of Converting from Binary IP Address to DDN Format11Figure 8-9
12 Introducing the Internet Protocol (IP)
Example: Converting binary IP address to dotted decimalConverting Binary IP Address to DDN12Figure 8-10
13 Introducing the Internet Protocol (IP): Routing
Routing IP Packets from Source to DestinationIP addressing groups addresses into networksAll addresses with same value in first parts of addresses considered to be in one networkExample: All addresses that begin with 11, 12, 13, 14, or 15 in that particular networkExample IP Address Groupings: All with the Same First Octet in the Same Group13Figure 8-11
14 IP Addressing on User LANs: Network Settings
Original IPv4 RFC defined way to group IPv4 addresses using IP address classes (classful IP addressing)Every possible IPv4 address falls into classFirst OctetClassPurposeAReservedUnicast addresses, in class A networks127Reserved for loopback testingBUnicast addresses, in class B networksCUnicast addresses, in class C networksDMulticast addresses; not used as unicast IP addressesEExperimental; not used as unicast IP addressesSummary of IPv4 Address Classes Based on First Octet Values14Table 8-2
15 IP Addressing on User LANs: Network Settings
Class A includes lower half of IPv4 address space: All IPv4 address that begin with first octet between 0 and 127Network IDClass A IP Network ConceptSize (Number of Addresses)All addresses with a first octet equal to 1> 16,000,000All addresses with a first octet equal to 2All addresses with a first octet equal to 3All addresses with a first octet equal to 4…Etc….All addresses with a first octet equal to 126Example Class A Networks15Table 8-3
16 IP Addressing on User LANs: Network Settings
Class B includes ¼ of IPv4 address space with first octet value from 128 – 191Includes medium number (216) of medium sized IP networks for approximately 65,000 hosts per networkNetwork IDConceptSize (Number of Addresses)All with a first two octets equal to 128.1> 65,000All with a first two octets equal to 128.2All with a first two octets equal to 128.3All with a first two octets equal toAll with a first two octets equal toAll with a first two octets equal toExample Class B Networks16Table 8-4
17 IP Addressing on User LANs: Network Settings
Class C includes 1/8th of IPv4 address space with first octet between 192 and 223Large number of small IP networks: over 2,000,000 IP networks, each with 256 IP addresses eachNetwork IDConceptSize (Number of Addresses)All with a first three octets equal to254All with a first three octets equal toAll with a first three octets equal toAll with a first three octets equal toAll with a first three octets equal toAll with a first three octets equal toExample Class C Networks17Table 8-5
18 IP Addressing on User LANs: Network Settings
LAN IP address classes summarySummary of How Class Rules Break Down the IPv4 Address Space18Figure 8-20
19 IP Addressing on User LANs: Network Settings
Private addresses: Classful IP networks reserved for enterprises to use in their network designsCan only be used on local LAN; can’t be routed through WAN (non-routable)Not regulated by agencies such as ARIN or ICANNNetwork IDConceptSize (Number of Addresses)10.x.x.xClass A Private IP addressing spaceOver 16,000,000 networks of over 16,000,000 IPs eachx.x –x.xClass B Private IP addressing spaceOver 65,000 networks of over >65,000 IPs eachx.xClass C Private IP addressing spaceOver 65,000 networks of 256 IPs each19
20 IP Addressing on User LANs: Network Settings
Static IP address assignment: Manually configuredStatic IP Address Assignment on Mac OS X20Figure 8-21
21 DNS Domain Name System/Service (DNS): Mapping names to IP addresses
Users use names; IP routing uses numbersDNS translates name into corresponding IP addressDNS client sends DNS Request messageDNS server returns DNS ReplyFollowing the steps in the Figure:The user at PC11 wants to connect to “Server1”, but PC11 does not know Server1’s IP address. So, PC11 sends a DNS Request to the DNS Server.The DNS Server finds that “Server1” is “ ” per its list, so it sends a DNS Reply back to PC11 with that information.PC11 can now send a packet with destination IP address to Server1.The figure shows how DNS works in one company, but it also works worldwide, as discussed in Chapter 9, “The InternetDNS Name Resolution Request, Reply, and Packet to Server1 IP Address21Figure 8-14
22 Internet Protocol (IP): Other Protocols
Layer 3 - NetworkIP with its Support Protocols22Figure 8-15
23 IP Addressing on User LANs: Network Settings
Most host OS’s allow static configuration of several network settingsHost IP Settings23Figure 8-22
24 IP Addressing on User LANs: Network Settings
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) defines way hosts can lease IP address from DHCP network server so does not have to be configured staticallyOperates on client-server conceptDHCP protocol defined by set of RFCsSample Network for DHCP Discussions24Figure 8-23
25 IP Routing with Focus on Layer 3
Router must have IP routing table with useful entries to route IP packets.Routing table may list multiple routes.Each IP route identifies network, as well as other information about how to send packets to that network.Routers look at incoming packet’s destination IP address and compare it to list of network IDs in its routing table to determine where to send packet to destination.25
26 IP Routing with Focus on Layer 3
Finding a classful network ID based on IP addressFive Classful Networks in a Small Corporate Network26Figure 8-28
27 IP Routing with Focus on Layer 3
Each route in routing table lists:Information about how to match IP packetsForwarding instructions that tell router where to forward packets to (e.g., next router)Example: R1’s IP routing table shows five network IDs so it knows routes to all five networksR1 Routing Table with Routes for Five Classful Networks27Figure 8-29
28 IP Routing with Focus on Layer 3: Subnetting
Classful IP networks and wasted IP addressesSubnetting: Process of subdividing network to create smaller groups of consecutive IP addressesSubnets (subdivided networks): Smaller groups of addressesNumbers of Classful Networks, and Their Sizes28Figure 8-32
29 IP Routing with Focus on Layer 3: Subnetting
Example: Several subnets created by subnetting networkEach subnet has subnet/network IDSubdividing (Subnetting) Class A Network29Figure 8-33
30 IP Routing with Focus on Layer 3: Subnetting
Example continued: IP addresses and networks replaced with five subnets of networkSample Corporate Network Using Subnets of Network30Figure 8-34
31 IP Routing with Focus on Layer 3: Subnetting
Classful networks have default subnet mask based on each classClass A: (8 bits)Class B: (16 bits)Class C: (24 bits)If subnet mask anything other than default, then subnetting being usedRouting Logic with Subnets and Masks31Figure 8-35
32 IP Routing with Focus on Layer 3: Subnetting
How to calculate subnetsDetermine network class (A, B, or C)Determine EITHER number of hosts needed for each subnet OR how many subnets neededDetermine how many bits needed to provide correct number of hosts/subnets; last subnet is NOT usableCalculate IPs for each subnet; first IP identifies subnet (Network ID) and last IP identifies broadcast addressDetermine subnet mask (total number of bits for network/subnet ID)32
33 IP Routing with Layer 1, 2, and 3 Interactions
PC encapsulating IP packet into Ethernet frameSending bits over LAN cable into networkEncapsulation Review: Data Link Layer33Figure 8-39
34 IP Routing with Layer 1, 2, and 3 Interactions
De-encapsulation: On the destination sideFollowing the de-encapsulation steps in the Figure:Server S1 physically receives the bits in this frame (layer 1).Server S1 processes the Ethernet header and trailer, and eventually discards them (layer 2).Server S1 processes the IP header, and eventually discards it (layer 3).Server S1 processes the TCP header, and eventually discards it (layer 4).Server S1 processes the HTTP message (layer 7).De-encapsulation on a Receiving Host (S1)34Figure 8-40
35 IP Routing with Layer 1, 2, and 3 Interactions
To learn destination MAC address, sending device uses Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) and info in ARP tableAddressShort AnswerLong AnswerSource MACOn NICGiven to Ethernet NIC by manufacturer; sending host can find MAC on NIC hardware.Source IPConfigurationEither through static configuration or DHCPDestination MACARPFrom its ARP table, or if not found, by using ARP protocol and sending ARP Request and waiting for ARP Reply from destinationDestination IPUserEither typed or clicked by userHow a Sending IP Host Knows What Addresses to Use35Table 8-9
36 Summary, This Chapter…Described the main functions of the TCP/IP network layer in regards to its focus on either physical or logical functions, and the focus on the network or endpoint hosts.Listed three major functions defined by IP.Listed common TCP/IP network layer functions in addition to IP.Examined a figure of an Enterprise TCP/IP network and determine where IP address groups (IP networks or subnets) would be needed.36
37 Assignments and Lab Unit 8 Assignment 1: Calculating Subnets
Unit 8 Assignment 2: Networking Protocols ReviewLab 8.1: IP Addressing and ClassesLab 8.2: Assigning Static IP AddressesLab 8.3: Routing TablesLab 8.4: SOHO PlanningUnit 8 Research Project 1: Chapter 9 Mind Maps
38 Unit 8 Lab Complete all Labs in Chapter 8 of the lab book.
Lab should be completed in class.Uncompleted Lab must be submitted in the next class.