Wise Words Essays On The Proverbial

This is an alphabetical list of widely used and repeated proverbial phrases. Whenever known, the origin of the phrase or proverb is noted. The majority of these phrases can be found at one of the following resources:[clarification needed][1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]

A proverbial phrase or a proverbial expression is type of a conventional saying similar to proverbs and transmitted by oral tradition. The difference is that a proverb is a fixed expression, while a proverbial phrase permits alterations to fit the grammar of the context.[10][11]

In 1768, John Ray defined a proverbial phrase as:

A proverb [or proverbial phrase] is usually defined, an instructive sentence, or common and pithy saying, in which more is generally designed than expressed, famous for it peculiarity or elegance, and therefore adapted by the learned as well as the vulgar, by which it is distinguished from counterfeits which want such authority

— John Ray, A Compleat Collection of English Proverbs,1798[12]


Phrases begin in the article "A" should be sought under the first letter of the second word.

  • A fool and his money are soon parted[13]
  • A mill cannot grind with the water that is past.
  • A penny saved is a penny earned.
  • A picture is worth a thousand words
  • A rising tide lifts all boats
  • A stitch in time (saves nine)
  • Absence makes the heart grow fonder[1]
  • Absolute power corrupts absolutely. John Dalberg-Acton, 1887,[1][14]
  • Accidents will happen (in the best-regulated families).[1]
  • Actions speak louder than words.[1][8]
  • Adversity makes strange bedfellows[1]
  • All good things come to he who waits[1]
  • All good things must come to an end,[1][8]
  • All is grist that comes to the mill[1]
  • All roads lead to Rome,[1][8]
  • All that glitters is not gold,[1][8]
  • All the world loves a lover[1]
  • All things come to those who wait[1]
  • All things must pass[1]
  • All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy[1][8]
  • All you need is love[1]
  • All is fair in love and war[1]
  • All is for the best in the best of all possible worlds[1]
  • All is well that ends well[1]
  • An apple a day keeps the doctor away[1]
  • An army marches on its stomach. Napoleon Bonaparte (1769–1821), Emperor of France[15]
  • An eye for an eye makes the whole world blind.[16]
  • An Englishman's home is his castle/A man's home is his castle[1]
  • Another day, another dollar.
  • An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure[1]
  • Any port in a storm,[1][8]
  • Any publicity is good publicity[1]
  • April showers bring forth May flowers,[1][8]
  • As you make your bed, so you must lie upon it[1]
  • As you sow so shall you reap[1]
  • Ask a silly question and you will get a silly answer[1]
  • Ask my companion if I be a thief[8]
  • Ask no questions and hear no lies[1]
  • Attack is the best form of defense[1]
  • A watched man never plays


  • Bad news travels fast[1]
  • Barking dogs seldom bite,[1][8]
  • Beauty is in the eye of the beholder[1]
  • Beauty is only skin deep,[1][8]
  • Beggars can not be choosers,[1][8]
  • Behind every great man, there is a great woman[1]
  • Better late than never[1]
  • Better safe than sorry[1]
  • Better the Devil you know than the Devil you do not[1]
  • Better to have loved and lost than never to have loved at all[1]
  • Better to light one candle than to curse the darkness[1]
  • Better to remain silent and be thought a fool than to speak and remove all doubt[1]
  • Better wear out than rust out.[8]
  • Beware of Greeks bearing gifts. Trojan War, Virgil in the Aeneid[17]
  • Big fish eat little fish[1]
  • Birds of a feather flock together[1]
  • Blood of the covenant is thicker than water of the womb.[18]
  • Boys will be boys[1]
  • Brevity is the soul of wit (Shakespeare),[1][8]
  • Business before pleasure[1]


  • Caesar's wife must be above suspicion[1]
  • Careless talk costs lives
  • Charity begins at home[1]
  • Cheats never prosper[1]
  • Children should be seen and not heard[1]
  • Christmas comes but once a year[8]
  • Cleanliness is next to godliness[1]
  • Clothes make the man[1]
  • Cold hands, warm heart[1]
  • Comparisons are odious[1]
  • Count your blessings[1]
  • Courage is the measure of a Man, Beauty is the measure of a Woman[1]
  • Cowards may die many times before their death[1]
  • Crime does not pay[1]
  • Cut your coat according to your cloth,[1][8]
  • Curiosity killed the cat[19]


  • Dead men tell no tales[1]
  • Devil take the hindmost[1]
  • Discretion is the better part of valour[1]
  • Do as I say, not as I do[1]
  • Do as you would be done by[1]
  • Do unto others as you would have them do unto you[1]
  • Do not bite the hand that feeds you[1]
  • Do not burn your bridges behind you[1]
  • Do not cast your pearls before swine[1]
  • Do not cry over spilled milk
  • Do not change horses in midstream[1]
  • Do not count your chickens before they are hatched[1]
  • Do not cross the bridge till you come to it[1]
  • Do not cut off your nose to spite your face[1]
  • Do not fish for a shark with your hands, fish for hands with a shark.
  • Do not keep a dog and bark yourself[1]
  • Do not look a gift horse in the mouth[1]
  • Do not make a mountain of a mole hill
  • Do not meet troubles half-way[1]
  • Do not put all your eggs in one basket[1]
  • Do not put the cart before the horse[1]
  • Do not put new wine into old bottles[1]
  • Do not rock the boat[1]
  • Do not spoil the ship for a ha'pworth of tar[1]
  • Do not throw pearls to swine[1]
  • Do not teach your Grandmother to suck eggs[1]
  • Do not throw the baby out with the bathwater[1]
  • Do not try to walk before you can crawl[1]
  • Do not upset the apple-cart[1]
  • Do not wash your dirty linen in public[1]
  • Do not sympathize with those who can not empathize
  • Doubt is the beginning, not the end, of wisdom[1]


  • Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise,[1][8]
  • East is east, and west is west (and never the twain shall meet)[1]
  • East, west, home is best,[1][8]
  • Easy come, easy go[1]
  • Eat breakfast as a king, lunch as a merchant and supper as a beggar
  • Eat, drink and be merry, for tomorrow we die[1]
  • Empty vessels make the most noise[1]
  • Enough is as good as a feast[1]
  • Even a worm will turn[1]
  • Every cloud has a silver lining[1]
  • Every dog has his day[1]
  • Every Jack has his Jill[1]
  • Every little bit helps[1]
  • Every man for himself, and the Devil take the hindmost[1]
  • Every man has his price[1]
  • Every picture tells a story[1]
  • Every stick has two ends[1]
  • Everybody wants to go to heaven but nobody wants to die[1]
  • Everything comes to those who wait[8]
  • Every tide has its ebb


  • Failing to plan is planning to fail[1]
  • Faint heart never won fair lady (Scott),[1][8]
  • Fair exchange is no robbery[1]
  • Faith will move mountains[1]
  • False friends are worst than open enemies.
  • Fake it til' you make it.
  • Familiarity breeds contempt[1]
  • Feed a cold and starve a fever[1]
  • Fight fire with fire[1]
  • Fine feathers make fine birds
  • Finders keepers, losers weepers[1]
  • Fine words butter no parsnips[1]
  • First come, first served[1]
  • First impressions are the most lasting[1]
  • First things first[1]
  • Fish always stinks from the head downwards[1]
  • Fish and guests smell after three days[1]
  • Flattery will get you nowhere[1]
  • Fools rush in (where angels fear to tread)[1]
  • For want of a nail the shoe was lost; for want of a shoe the horse was lost; and for want of a horse the man was lost[1]
  • Forewarned is forearmed[1]
  • Fortune favours the brave[1]
  • Free is for me[1]
  • Fretting cares make grey hair



  • Half a loaf is better than no bread[1]
  • Handsome is as handsome does[1]
  • Hard cases make bad law[1]
  • Hard work never did anyone any harm[1]
  • Haste makes waste[1]
  • He that goes a-borrowing, goes a-sorrowing[1]
  • He who can, does; he who cannot, teaches[1]
  • He who hesitates is lost[1]
  • He who laughs last laughs longest[1]
  • He who lives by the sword shall die by the sword[1]
  • He who loves the world as his body may be entrusted with the empire. Lao Tzu, Chinese philosopher (604 BC – 531 BC)[20]
  • He who makes a beast out of himself gets rid of the pain of being a man[1]
  • He who pays the piper calls the tune[1]
  • He who knows does not speak. He who speaks does not know. Lao Tzu, Chinese philosopher (604 BC – 531 BC)[20]
  • He who sups with the Devil should have a long spoon[1]
  • Hell hath no fury like a woman scorned[1]
  • Hindsight is always twenty-twenty[1]
  • History repeats itself[1]
  • Home is where the heart is[1]
  • Honesty is the best policy[1]
  • Hope springs eternal[1]
  • Horses for courses[1]
  • Hunger never knows the taste, sleep never knows the comfort[1]
  • History repeats itself, and it does not care what it repeats


  • If anything can go wrong, it will[1]
  • If a job is worth doing, it is worth doing well[1]
  • If at first you do not succeed, try, try again[1]
  • If God had meant us to fly, he would have given us wings[1]
  • If ifs and ands were pots and pans, there would be no work for tinkers[1]
  • If it were not for hope the heart would break.
  • If it were a snake, it would have bit you.
  • If the cap fits, wear it[1]
  • If the mountain will not come to Mohammed, then Mohammed must go to the mountain[1]
  • If we're not back by dawn, call the President.
  • If wealth is lost, nothing is lost. If health is lost, something is lost. If character is lost, everything is lost.[1]
  • If wishes were horses, beggars would ride[1]
  • If you're growing in Age, then you're nearing to the Graveyard[1]
  • If you cannot be good, be careful[1]
  • If you cannot beat them, join them[1]
  • If you cannot stand the heat, get out of the kitchen[1]
  • If you give a mouse a cookie, he'll always ask for a glass of milk[1]
  • If you think that you know everything, then you're a Jack ass[1]
  • If you lie down with dogs, you will get up with fleas[1]
  • If you pay peanuts, you get monkeys[1]
  • If you steal from one author, it is plagiarism; if you steal from many, it is research. Wilson Mizner (1876–1933)[21]
  • If you want a thing done well, do it yourself[1]
  • If you have never seen the bottom of the tree, you cannot know how tall it stands[1]
  • Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery[1]
  • In for a penny, in for a pound[1]
  • In the kingdom of the blind, the one eyed man is king[1]
  • In the midst of life, we are in death[1]
  • Into every life a little rain must fall[1]
  • It goes without saying[1]
  • It is all grist to the mill[1]
  • It is an ill wind that blows no one any good[1]
  • It is best to be on the safe side[1]
  • It is better to give than to receive[1]
  • It is better to have loved and lost than never to have loved at all[1]
  • It is better to cultivate a Land with two Bulls, rather working under Boss who never gives Wage when asked[1]
  • It is better to light a candle than curse the darkness[1]
  • It is better to travel hopefully than to arrive[1]
  • It is easy to be wise after the event[1]
  • It is like juggling sand (Ian Murray)[1]
  • It is never too late[1]
  • It is no use crying over spilt milk[1]
  • It is no use locking the stable door after the horse has bolted[1]
  • It is on[1]
  • It is the early bird that gets the worm[1]
  • It is the empty can that makes the most noise[1]
  • It is the squeaky wheel that gets the grease[1]
  • It never rains but it pours[1]
  • It takes a thief to catch a thief[1]
  • It needs a Hundred Lies to cover a Single Lie[1]
  • It takes all sorts to make a world[1]
  • It takes one to know one[1]
  • It takes two to tango[1]
  • I'm going to have to give you the pink slip[1]
  • It will come back and haunt you[1]\
  • It will be the same a hundred years hence.



  • Keep your chin up[22]
  • Keep your friends close and your enemies closer.
  • Keep your powder dry. Valentine Blacker, 1834 from Oliver's Advice[23]
  • Kindness in words creates confidence. Kindness in thinking creates profoundness. Kindness in giving creates love. Lao Tzu, Chinese philosopher (604 BC – 531 BC)[20]
  • Knowledge is power, guard it well.


  • Laugh before breakfast, cry before supper.
  • Laugh and the world laughs with you, weep and you weep alone[1]
  • Laughter is the best medicine[1]
  • Late lunch makes day go faster.
  • Least said, soonest mended[1]
  • Less is more[1]
  • Let bygones be bygones[1]
  • Let not the sun go down on your wrath[1]
  • Let sleeping dogs lie[1]
  • Let the buyer beware[1]
  • Let the dead bury the dead (N.T.)[1]
  • Let the punishment fit the crime[1]
  • Let well alone[1]
  • Let your hair down.
  • Life begins at forty[1]
  • Life is too short not to do something that matters.
  • Life is not all beer and skittles[1]
  • Life is what you make it[1]
  • Lightning never strikes twice in the same place[1]
  • Like father, like son,[1][8]
  • Little pitchers have big ears[1]
  • Little strokes fell great oaks[1]
  • Little things please little minds[1]
  • Live and let live
  • Live for today, for tomorrow never comes[1]
  • Live to fight another day[1]
  • Loose lips sink ships
  • Look before you leap[1]
  • Love is blind The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Act II, Scene 1 (1591)[1]
  • Love of money is the root of all kinds of evil.[24]
  • Love makes the world go around[1]
  • Love will find a way[1]


  • Make hay while the sun shines[1]
  • Make love not war[1]
  • Man does not live by bread alone[1]
  • Manners maketh man[1]
  • Many a little makes a mickle[1]
  • Many a mickle makes a muckle[1]
  • Many a true word is spoken in jest[1]
  • Many hands make light work[1]
  • March comes in like a lion and goes out like a lamb[1]
  • Marriages are made in heaven[1][1]
  • Marry in haste, repent at leisure[8]
  • Memory is the treasure of the mind
  • Men get spoiled by staying, Women get spoiled by wandering[8]
  • Might is right[8]
  • Might makes right
  • Mighty oaks from little acorns grow[1]
  • Milking the bull
  • Misery loves company[1]
  • Moderation in all things[1]
  • Monday's child is fair of face, Tuesday's child is full of grace, Wednesday's child is full of woe, Thursday's child has far to go, Friday's child is loving and giving, Saturday's child works hard for its living, and a child that is born on the Sabbath day is fair and wise and good and gay.[1]
  • Money does not grow on trees[1]
  • Money earned by deceit, goes by deceit[1]
  • Money is not everything[1]
  • Money makes the world go around[1]
  • Money talks[1]
  • Money makes many things, but also makes devil dance[1]
  • More haste, less speed[1]
  • Music has charms to soothe the savage beast[1]


  • Nature abhors a vacuum,[1][8]
  • Never reveal a man's wage, and woman's age[1]
  • Necessity is the mother of invention[1]
  • Needs must when the devil drives[1]
  • Never cast a clout until May be out[1]
  • Never give advice unless asked.
  • Never give a sucker an even break[1]
  • Never judge a book by its cover[1]
  • Never let the sun go down on your anger[1]
  • Never look a gift horse in the mouth[1]
  • Never put off until tomorrow what you can do today[1]
  • Never speak ill of the dead[1]
  • Never say never[25]
  • Never tell tales out of school[1]
  • Never too old to learn.
  • Nine tailors make a man,[1][8]
  • No guts, no glory[1]
  • No man can serve two masters[1]
  • No man is an island[1]
  • No names, no pack-drill[1]
  • No news is good news[1]
  • No one can make you feel inferior without your consent[1]
  • No pain, no gain[1]
  • No rest for the wicked[1]
  • Nothing is certain but death and taxes[1]
  • Nothing succeeds like success,[1][8]
  • Nothing ventured, nothing gained[1]


  • Once a(n) _, always a(n) _
  • One might as well throw water into the sea as to do a kindness to rogues
  • One kind word can warm three winter months
  • Oil and water do not mix[1]
  • Old soldiers never die; they just fade away[1]
  • Once a thief, always a thief[1]
  • Once bitten, twice shy[1]
  • One good turn deserves another[1]
  • One half of the world does not know how the other half lives[1]
  • One hand washes the other[1]
  • One man's meat is another man's poison[1]
  • One man's trash is another man's treasure
  • One might as well be hanged for a sheep as a lamb[1]
  • One law for the rich and another for the poor[1]
  • One swallow does not make a summer[1]
  • One who believes in Sword, dies by the Sword[1]
  • One year's seeding makes seven years weeding[1]
  • Only fools and horses work[1]
  • Open confession is good for the soul.
  • Opportunity never knocks twice at any man's door[1]
  • Other times other manners.
  • Out of sight, out of mind[1]
  • Over greedy man, over wrathful woman will never flourish[1]


  • Parsley seed goes nine times to the Devil[1]
  • Patience is a virtue[1]
  • Pearls of wisdom[1]
  • Penny wise and pound foolish[1]
  • Penny, Penny. Makes many.
  • People who live in glass houses should not throw stones[1]
  • Physician, heal thyself[1]
  • Possession is nine-tenths of the law[1]
  • Power corrupts; absolute power corrupts absolutely[1]
  • Practice makes perfect[1]
  • Practice what you preach[1]
  • Prevention is better than cure[1]
  • Pride goes before a fall (O.T.),[1][8]
  • Procrastination is the thief of time
  • Put your best foot forward[1]
  • Put your money where your mouth is[1]


  • Red sky at night shepherds delight; red sky in the morning, shepherds warning[1]
  • Respect is not given, it is earned.
  • Revenge is a dish best served cold[1]
  • Revenge is sweet[1]
  • Rome was not built in a day,[1][8]
  • Right or wrong, my country[1]
  • Rules were made to be broken.


  • See a penny and pick it up, all the day you will have good luck; see a penny and let it lay, bad luck you will have all day[1]
  • See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil[1]
  • Seeing is believing[1]
  • Seek and ye shall find[1]
  • Set a thief to catch a thief[1]
  • Shiny are the distant hills[1]
  • Shrouds have no pockets[1]
  • (Speech is silver but) Silence is golden[1]
  • Slow and steady wins the race[1]
  • Slow but sure[1]
  • Softly, softly, catchee monkey[1]
  • Sometimes we are the student. Sometimes we are the master. And sometimes we are merely the lesson – Jacalyn Smith[1]
  • Spare the rod and spoil the child[1]
  • Speak as you find[1]
  • Speak softly and carry a big stick[1]
  • Sticks and stones may break my bones, but words will never hurt me[1]
  • Still waters run deep[1]
  • Strike while the iron is hot[1]
  • Stupid is as stupid does[1]
  • Success has many fathers, while failure is an orphan[1]
  • Speak of the devil and he shall/is sure/will appear


  • Take care of the pennies, and the pounds will take care of themselves[1]
  • Talk is cheap[1]
  • Talk of the Devil, and he is bound to appear[1]
  • Tell me who your friends are, and I'll tell you who you are[26]
  • Tell the truth and shame the Devil (Shakespeare, Henry IV),[1][8]
  • That which does not kill us makes us stronger[1]
  • The age of miracles is past[1]
  • The apple never falls far from the tree[1]
  • The best defence is a good offence[1]
  • The best-laid schemes of mice and men often go awry[1]
  • The best things in life are free[1]
  • The bigger they are, the harder they fall[1]
  • The boy is father to the man[1]
  • The bread never falls but on its buttered side[1]
  • The child is the father of the man[1]
  • The cobbler always wears the worst shoes[1]
  • The course of true love never did run smooth[1]
  • The customer is always right[1]
  • The darkest hour is just before the dawn[1]
  • The Devil finds work for idle hands to do[1]
  • The Devil looks after his own[1]
  • The die is cast[27]
  • The early bird catches the worm[1]
  • The end justifies the means[1]
  • The exception which proves the rule[1]
  • The female of the species is more deadly than the male[1]
  • The future will by cridet card starting from born[1]
  • The good die young[1]
  • The grass is always greener on the other side[1]
  • The hand that rocks the cradle rules the world[1]
  • The husband is always the last to know[1]
  • The innocent seldom find an uncomfortable pillow. William Cowper, English poet (1731–1800)[28]
  • The labourer is worthy of his hire[1]
  • The leopard does not change his spots[1]
  • The longest day must have an end[8]
  • The longest journey starts with a single step[1]
  • The moon is made of green cheese
  • The more the merrier[1]
  • The more things change, the more they stay the same[1]
  • The mustard on a bun is as yellow as a daisy in the sun.
  • The only disability in life is a bad attitude. Scott Hamilton
  • The only way to understand a woman is to love her[1]
  • The pen is mightier than the sword[1]
  • The proof of the pudding is in the eating[1]
  • The road to Hell is paved with good intentions[1]
  • The shoemaker's son always goes barefoot[1]
  • The squeaking wheel gets the grease[1]
  • The straw that broke the camel's back[1]
  • The way to a man's heart is through his stomach[1]
  • There ain't no such thing as a free lunch
  • There are more ways of killing a cat than choking it with cream[1]
  • There are none so blind as those that will not see[1] — attributed variously to Edmund Burke or George Santayana
  • There are two sides to every question[1]
  • There but for the grace of God go I[1]
  • There is an exception to every rule[1]
  • There are always more fish in the sea[1]
  • There is honour among thieves[1]
  • There is many a good tune played on an old fiddle[1]
  • There is many a slip 'twixt cup and lip[1]
  • There is more than one way to skin a cat[1]
  • There is no accounting for tastes[1]
  • There is no fool like an old fool[1]
  • There is no place like home[1]
  • There is no smoke without fire[1]
  • There is no such thing as a free lunch[1]
  • There is no such thing as bad publicity[1]
  • There is no time like the present[1]
  • There is none so blind as those who will not see[1]
  • There's none so deaf as those who will not hear[1]
  • There is nowt so queer as folk[1]
  • There is one born every minute[1]
  • There is safety in numbers[1]
  • They that sow the wind shall reap the whirlwind[1]
  • Third time is a charm[1]
  • Those who do not learn from history are doomed to repeat it[1]
  • Those who live in glass houses should not throw stones[1]
  • Those who sleep with dogs will rise with fleas[1]
  • Time and tide wait for no man[1]
  • Time flies[1]
  • Time is a great healer[1]
  • Time is money[1]
  • Time will tell[1]
  • ’Tis better to have loved and lost than never to have loved at all[1]
  • To be worn out is to be renewed. Lao Tzu, Chinese philosopher (604 BC – 531 BC)[20]
  • To each his own.
  • To err is human, to forgive divine[1]
  • To the victor go the spoils[1]
  • To travel hopefully is a better thing than to arrive[1]
  • Tomorrow is another day[1]
  • Tomorrow never comes[1]
  • Too many cooks spoil the broth[1]
  • Truth is stranger than fiction[1]
  • Truth will out[1]
  • Two heads are better than one[1]
  • Two is company, but three is a crowd,[1][8]
  • Two wrongs do not make a right[1]



  • Walk softly but carry a big stick. Theodore Roosevelt 1900 in letter relating an old African proverb[30]
  • Walnuts and pears you plant for your heirs[1]
  • Waste not, want not[1]
  • What cannot be cured must be endured[1]
  • What goes around, comes around
  • What goes up must come down[1]
  • What you lose on the swings you gain on the roundabouts[1]
  • What is sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander[1]
  • When in Rome, do as the Romans do. St. Ambrose 347AD[31]
  • When it rains it pours.
  • When life gives you lemons, make lemonade[1][32]
  • When the cat is away, the mice will play[1]
  • When the going gets tough, the tough get going[1]
  • When the oak is before the ash, then you will only get a splash; when the ash is before the oak, then you may expect a soak[1]
  • When three women gather, it becomes noisy.
  • What is learnt in the cradle lasts to the tombs.
  • What the eye does not see, the heart does not grieve over[1]
  • Where there is a will there is a way[1]
  • Where there is muck there is brass[1]
  • Where there's life there's hope.
  • Whether you think you can, or you think you can't, you're right.[1]
  • While there is life there is hope[1]
  • Whom the Gods love die young[1]
  • Why keep a dog and bark yourself?[1]
  • With great responsibility comes great power
  • Woman is the root of both good and evil[1]
  • Wonders will never cease[1]
  • Work expands so as to fill the time available[1]
  • Worrying never did anyone any good[1]


  • You are never too old to learn[1]
  • You are what you eat[1]
  • You can have too much of a good thing[1]
  • You can lead a horse to water, but you cannot make it drink[1]
  • You cannot have your cake and eat it too[1]
  • You cannot get blood out of a stone[1]
  • You cannot make a silk purse from a sow's ear[1]
  • You cannot make an omelette without breaking eggs[1]
  • You cannot make bricks without straw[1]
  • You cannot run with the hare and hunt with the hounds[1]
  • You cannot teach an old dog new tricks[1]
  • You cannot judge a book by its cover[1]
  • You cannot win them all[1]
  • You catch more flies with honey than with vinegar[1]
  • You pay your money and you take your choice[1]
  • Youth is wasted on the young[1]
  • You must have rocks in your head[1]
  • You've got to separate the wheat from the chaff[1]


Proverb Bibliography
(Francis Steen; revised 20 April 2000)

          1. Bibliographies
          2. Collections
          3. Comparative and Theoretical Paremiology
          4. Early Commentaries
          5. Ethnographies
          6. Literary analyses
          7. Pragmatics and Cognition
          8. Psychology


Children's Folklore (electronic bibliography). Middlesex, UK: Hisarlik Press, 1994.

Mieder, Wolfgang. African proverb scholarship: an annotated bibliography. Colorado Springs, CO: African Proverbs Project, 1994.

Mieder, Wolfgang. International Bibliography of New and Reprinted Proverbs Collections. Proverbium 8 (1991): 279-84.

Mieder, Wolfgang. International proverb scholarship: an annotated bibliography.  New York : Garland Pub., 1982. UCSB  Main Lib  Z7191 .M543 1982

Mieder, Wolfgang. International proverb scholarship, an annotated bibliography. Supplement. New York : Garland, 1990-1993.

Mieder, Wolfgang. International bibliography of explanatory essays on individual proverbs and proverbial expressions.  Las Vegas, NV: Peter Lang, 1977.

Mieder, Wolfgang. Investigations of proverbs, proverbial expressions, quotations, and cliches : a bibliography of explanatory essays which appeared in Notes and Queries (1849-1983). New York: Peter Lang, 1984.

Mieder, Wolfgang and George B. Bryan. Proverbs in world literature: a bibliography. New York: Peter Lang, 1996.

Paczolay, Gyula. Proverbs in Hungarian Literature: A Bibliography. Proverbium 5 (1988): 207-211.

Stephens, Thomas Arthur. Proverb literature: a bibliography of works relating to proverbs, edited by Wilfrid Bonser. Compiled from materials left by the late T. A. Stephens. Nendeln/Liechtenstein, Kraus Reprint, 1967. UCSB  Main Lib  Z7191 .S83

Collections (see also Ethnographies) 

Abdulai, David. African Proverbs: Wisdom of the Ages.  Ghana: Konkori International, 2000.

Alster, Bendt. The instructions of Suruppak: a Sumerian proverb collection. Copenhagen : Akademisk Forlag, 1974. UCLA  College   PJ 4065 A463i.

Blum, Joachim Christian, 1739-1790. Deutsches Sprichworterbuch. Vorwort von Wolfgang Mieder.  Hildesheim: G. Olms Verlag, 1990.

Christaller, J. G. Three Thousand Six Hundred Ghanaian Proverbs: From the Asante and Fante Language. 1990.

Children's Folklore: A Source Book. Ed. Brian Sutton-Smith et al. New York: Garland, 1995.

Dictionary of American proverbs. Wolfgang Mieder, editor in chief ; Stewart A. Kingsbury and Kelsie B. Harder, editors.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Eugenio, Damiana L. Philippine proverb lore. Quezon City: Philippine Folklore Society, 1975.

Furman, Israel. Yiddish Proverbs and Sayings. Tel Aviv. 1968.

Galef, David. "Even Monkeys Fall from Trees" and Other Japanese Proverbs.  Rutland, VT. 1987.

Heng, Xiao-jun. A Chinese-English Dictionary of Idioms and Proverbs. Tubingen. 1988.

Iscla, Luis, SJ. English Proverbs and Their Near Equivalents in Spanish, French, Italian and Latin. New York. 1995.

Knappert, Jan. Swahili proverbs. Proverbium in cooperation with the African Studies Program, University of Vermont, 1997. Series title:  Proverbium (Columbus, Ohio). Supplement series, v. 1.

Koul, Omkar N. A Dictionary of Kashmiri Proverbs. Patiala. 1992.

Lall, Kesar. Nepalese Book of Proverbs. Kathmandu. 1985.

Manwaring, A. Marathi Proverbs. New Delhi. 1991.

Meek, Donald E. The Campbell Collection of Gaelic Proverbs and Proverbial Sayings. Collected by The Rev. Duncan M. Campbell. Inverness. 1978.

Mertvago, Peter. The comparative Russian-English dictionary of Russian proverbs & sayings. New York, NY : Hippocrene Books, c1995.

Mieder, Wolfgang. International Bibliography of New and Reprinted Proverbs Collections. Proverbium 8 (1991): 279-84.

Mieder, Wolfgang. The Prentice-Hall encyclopedia of world proverbs: a treasury of wit and wisdom through the ages.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1986.

Kuusi, Matti, and Marje Joalaid. Proverbia septentrionalia: 900 Balto-Finnic proverb types with Russian, Baltic, German and Scandinavian parallels. Helsinki: Academia Scientiarum Fennica, 1985.

Paczolay, Gyula. European Proverbs in 55 Languages, with Equivalents in Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit, Chinese, and Japanese. Veszprém, Hungary: Veszprémi Nyomda, 1997.

Ramsay, Allan. A Collection of Scots Proverbs. Edinburgh. 1979.

Scheven, Albert. Swahili Proverbs: Nia zikiwa moja, kilicho mbali huja. Washington, D.C. 1981.

Simpson, John. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs. Oxford. 1992.

Tair, Mohammad Nawaz. Rohi Mataluna/Pashto Proverbs. Peshawar, Pakistan. 1982.

Tiffou, E. Hunza Proverbs. Calgary. 1993.

Walser, Ferdinand. Luganda Proverbs. Berlin. 1982.

Williams, Fionnuala. The Poolbeg Book of Irish Proverbs. Dublin. 1992.

Comparative and Theoretical Paremiology  

Basgoz, Ilhan. Proverbs about Proverbs of Folk Definitions of Proverb. Proverbium 7 (1990): 7-17.

Blehr, Otto. What Is a Proverb? Fabula (Gottingen) 14 (1973): 243-46.

Dundes, Alan. On the Structure of the Proverb. Proverbium 25 (1974): 961-73.

Eismann, Wolfgang, Wolfgang Mieder, and Peter Gryzbek (eds.). Series: "Studies of Phraseology and Paremiology." 1994-.

Hood, Edwin Paxton. The world of proverb and parable. With illustrations from history, biography, and the anecdotal table-talk of all ages. With an introductory essay on the historic unity of the popular proverb and tale in all ages. London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1885.

Hulme, F. Edward. Proverb lore; being a historical study of the similarities, contrasts, topics, meanings, and other facets of proverbs, truisms, and pithy sayings, as expressed by the peoples of many lands and times.  London, E. Stock, 1902; Detroit, Gale Research Co., 1968. UCSB  Main Lib  PN6401 .H8

Jakobson, Roman. Notes on the Makeup of a Proverb. Linguistic and Literary Studies in Honor of Archibald A. Hill, IV. The Hague. 1979. 83-85.

Kass, Janos and Andras Lukacsy. Pieter Bruegel der Altere, Die niederlandischen Sprichworter. Entwurf und Zusammenstellung von Janos Kass; Text von Andras Lukacsy.  Budapest: Corvina Kiado, 1985. Image of Bruegel's Netherlandish Proverbs (220k) from 1559.

Mieder, Wolfgang. The politics of proverbs: from traditional wisdom to proverbial stereotypes.  U. of Wisconsin, '97.

Mieder, Wolfgang. "Make hell while the sun shines": proverbial rhetoric in Winston Churchill's 'The Second World War.'.  Folklore v106 (Annual, 1995):57 (13 pages).

Mieder, Wolfgang.  "No tickee, no washee": subtleties of a proverbial slur. Western Folklore v55, n1 (Jan, 1996):1 (40 pages).

Mieder, Wolfgang. "The only good Indian is a dead Indian": history and meaning of a  proverbial stereotype. Journal of American Folklore v106, n419 (Wntr, 1993):38 (23 pages).

Mieder, Wolfgang. "(Don't) throw the baby out with the bath water": the Americanization of a German proverb and proverbial expression. Western Folklore v50, n4 (Oct, 1991):361 (40 pages).

Mieder, Wolfgang. Modern Proverbs and Proverbial Sayings. (book reviews) Journal of American Folklore v103, n408 (April-June, 1990):215 (4 pages).

Mieder, Wolfgang. Proverbs are never out of season: popular wisdom in the modern age. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Permiakov, G. L. From proverb to folk-tale : notes on the general theory of cliche.Moscow: Nauka, 1979.

Proverbia in fabula: essays on the relationship of the proverb and the fable. Pack Carnes (ed.).  Bern ; New York : P. Lang, c1988.

Taylor, Archer. The proverb, and An index to The proverb.  Hatboro, Pa., Folklore Associates, 1962. UCSB  Main Lib  PN6401 .T3 1931a

Whiting, Bartlett Jere. When evensong and morrowsong accord : three essays on the proverb. Edited by Joseph Harris.  [Cambridge, Mass.] : Department of English and American Literature and Language, Harvard University, c1994.   UCSB  Main Lib  PN6401 .W447 1994

Wise words : essays on the proverb. Edited by Wolfgang Mieder. New York: Garland, 1994.

The Wisdom of many: essays on the proverb. Edited by Wolfgang Mieder, Alan Dundes.  New York: Garland, 1981.  UCSB  Main Lib  PN6401 .W57

The Tokyo International Proverb Forum 1996 Abstracts

Early Commentaries (before 1800)  

A. B., Learn to lye warm, or, An apology for that proverb "tis good sheltring under an old hedge": containing reasons wherefore a young man should marry an old woman / written in a letter to K.D. London : Printed by H. Brugis for W. Gilbert ..., 1672. Series title:  Early English books, 1641-1700 ; 833:1. UCR   Rivera    441 833:1 Microfilm.

Carter, W. The proverb crossed, or, A new paradox maintained. London: Printed for authour, 1677.

Ditto. City-Hall, high noon, 10th March, 1768. A kick for a bite. : From the old proverb: "One man may better steal a horse, than another look over the hedge.".  [New York : s.n., 1768]. UCSB  Main Lib  PS504 .A48

Dykes, Oswald. English proverbs, with moral reflexions. London, Sawbridge, 1713.

Ford, Simon. The blessednesse of being bountifull, or, Our blessed Saviours usual proverb, opened, asserted, and practically improved. London : Printed for James Collins, 1674.

Ethnographies (see also Collections)  

Amadiume, Solomon. Ilu Ndi Igbo: A Study of Igbo Proverbs. Translation, Explanation and Usage (With a Comparison with Some Hausa Proverbs). Enugu. 1994

Brenner, Clarene D. The French dramatic proverb.  Calif. : Brenner, 1977. Revised and enlarged  English version of the author's Le developpement du proverbe dramatique en France et sa vogue au XVIIIe, 1957. Includes bibliographical references and index. History and criticism of French Proverbs.

Campbell, Theophine Maria. African and Afro-American proverb parallels. Dissertation, Berkeley, 1975.

Chou, P'an-lin. A comparative study on Chinese and western proverbs. T'ai-pei : Wen shih che ch'u pan she, 1975.

Christian, John. Behar proverbs. Translated with notes, illustrating the social custom, popular superstition, and every-day life of the people. New Delhi: Unity Book Service, 1986.

Cocci, Gilberto. Folclore della Versilia; raccolta di canti popolari, proverb e dittaggi. Pisa, V. Lischi [1960?].

Cui, Mingqiu. The wisdom of the Chinese proverb with English proverb equivalents. Palo  Alto, CA : Bottom Line Books, 1990.

Dalfovo, A. T. Lugbara Proverbs and Ethics. Anthropos (Switzerland) 86, 1-3 (1991): 45-58.

Eberardo, Feliciano P. "Dichos en el idioma maya-mam de Guatemala como una estrategia para la transmision de valores." Past, Present, and Future: Selected Papers on Latin American Indian Literatures. Ed. Mary H. Preuss. Culver City, CA: Labyrinthos, 1991. 27-29.

Eugenio, Damiana L. Philippine Proverbs. Diliman Review (Philippines) 39, 1 (1991): 32-45.

Gossen, Gary H. Chamula Tzotzil Proverbs: Neither Fish nor Fowl. Meaning in Mayan Languages. Ed. Munro S. Edmonson. The Hague, 1973. 205-33.

Haring, Lee. The Word of the Fathers: Proverbs in Madagascar. Acta Ethnographica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 33, 1-4 (1984-1985): 123-164.

Kindstrand, Jan Fredrik. The Greek Concept of Proverbs. Proverbia in Fabula: Essays on the Relationship of the Proverb and the Fable. New York. 1988. 233-53.

Mieder, Wolfgang. Proverbs of the Native Americans: a prize competition. Western Folklore v48, n3 (July, 1989):256 (5 pages).

Murphy, William Peter. A semantic and logical analysis of Kpelle proverb metaphors of secrecy. Dissertation, 1976.

Neethling, S. J. Proverbs: Window on the Xhosa World? South African Journal of African Languages 15, 4 (Nov 1995): 191-96.

Plopper Clifford Henry. Chinese religion seen through the proverb.  New York, Paragon Book Reprint Corp., 1969.

Richmond, Edmun B. Utilizing Proverbs as a Focal Point to Cultural Awareness and Communicative Competence: Illustrations from Africa. Foreign Language Annals 20, 3 (1987 May): 213-16.

Sakayan, Dora. Armenian Proverbs: A Paremiological Study with an Anthology of 2,500 Armenian Folk Sayings, Selected and Translated into English. Delmar, NY, 1994.

Spano, Giovanni. Proverbi sardi trasportati in lingua italiana e confrontati con quelli degli antichi popoli. Second ed. Bologna, Forni, 1967.

Velt, H. V. The Nez Perce Proverb. Pacific Northwest Quarterly 34 (1943): 271-292.

Williams, Fionnuala. Six Hundred Gaelic Proverbs Collected in Ulster by Robert Mac Adam. Proverbium 12 (1995): 343-55.

Wrzesinska, Alicja. Proverbs of the Bakongo People. Hemispheres 6 (1989): 235-47.

Literary Analyses  

Anstensen, Ansten The proverb in Ibsen.  New York, AMS Press, Inc., 1966/1936.

Bryan, George B. and Wolfgang Mieder. The proverbial Bernard Shaw : an index to proverbs in the works of George Bernard Shaw. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.

Bryan, George B. and Wolfgang Mieder. The proverbial Charles Dickens : an index to the proverbs in the works of Charles Dickens.  New York: Peter Lang, 1997.

Champion, Larry S. 'A Springe to Catch Woodcocks': Proverbs, Characterization, and Political Ideology in Hamlet. Hamlet Studies (New Delhi) 15, 1-2 (1993 Summer-Winter) : 24-39.

De Caro, Frank. Proverbs in Graham Greene's 'The Power and the Glory': Framing Thematic Concerns in a Modern Novel. Proverbium 6 (1989): 1-7.

Deskis, Susan E. Beowulf and the medieval proverb tradition. Tempe, Ariz. : Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies, 1996. UCSB  Main Lib  PR1587.P75 D47 1996

Derrida, Jacques. "Proverb, 'He that would pun--.'" Glassary. Ed. John P. Leavey. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1986. UCSB  Main Lib  B2948.D463 L43 1986

Mauch, Thomas Karl. The role of the proverb in early Tudor literature. Dissertation, 1963.

Mieder, Wolfgang. Proverbs, Proverbial Sentences and Phrases in Thomas Deloney's Works.  (book reviews) Journal of American Folklore v101, n400 (Apr-Jun, 1988):250 (2 pages).

Mieder, Wolfgang and George B. Bryan. Proverbs in world literature: a bibliography. New York: Peter Lang, 1996.

Neuss, Paula. The Sixteenth-Century English 'Proverb' Play. Comparative Drama 18, 1 (1984 Spring): 1-18.

Scott, W. T. Proverbs, Postmodernity, and Unacknowledged Legislation. Law and Literature Perspectives. New York. 1996. 341-52. Series title:  Critic of Institutions 9.

Smith, Charles George. Shakespeare's proverb lore; his use of the Sententiae of Leonard Culman and Publilius Syrus.  Cambridge, Harvard U P, 1963. UCSB  Main Lib  PR2997.P7 S4

Smith, Charles George. Spenser's proverb lore, with special reference to his use of the Sententia of Leonard Culman and Publilius Syrus. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1970.

Zolkovskij, A. K. At the Intersection of Linguistics, Paremiology and Poetics: On the Literary Structure of Proverbs. Poetics (Amsterdam) 7 (1978): 309-32.

Pragmatic and Cognitive Analyses (loosely; see also Comparative Paremiology) 

Alexander, Tamar. Games of Identity in Proverb Usage: Proverbs of a Sephardic-Jewish Woman. Proverbium 5 (1988): 1-14.

Arleo, Andy. Counting-out and the search for universals. (Children's rhymes). Journal of American Folklore 110. 438 (Fall 1997): 391-407.

Basgoz, Ilhan. Proverb Image, Proverb Message, and Social Change. Journal of Folklore Research 30, 2-3 (1993 May-Dec): 127-42.

Bergsma, Harold M. Tiv Proverbs as a Means of Social Control. Africa (London) 40 (1970): 151-63.

Bock, Kathryn J. Comprehension and Memory of the Literal and Figurative Meaning of Proverbs. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 9 (1980): 59-72.

Bornstein, Valerie. A Case Study and Analysis of Family Proverb Use. Proverbium 8 (1991): 19-28.

Bowden, Betsy. A Modes Proposal, Relating Four Millenia of Proverb Collections to Chemistry within the Human Brain. Journal of American Folklore 109, 433 (1996): 440-49.

Briggs, Charles L. The Pragmatics of Proverb Performances in New Mexican Spanish. American Anthropologist 87,  4 (1985 Dec): 793-810.

Charteris-Black, Jonathan. Proverbs in Communication. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 16, 4 (1995): 259-68.

Cram, David. A Note on the Logic of Proverbs. Proverbium 2 (1985): 271-272.

Cubelic, Tvrtko. The Characteristics and Limits of Folk Proverbs within the System and Structure of Oral Folk Literature. Proverbium 23 (1974): 909-14.

Foley, John Miles. Proverbs and Proverbial Function in South Slavic and Comparative Epic. Proverbium 11 (1994): 77-92.

Folly, Dennis W. The poetry of African-American proverb usage: a speech act analysis. Dissertation, 1991.

Furnham, Adrian. The Proverbial Truth: Contextually Reconciling and the Truthfulness of Antonymous Proverbs. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 6, 1 (1987): 49-55.

Gibbs, Raymond W., Jr. How to Study Proverb Understanding. Metaphor and Symbolic Activity 11, 3 (1996): 233-39.

Gibbs, Raymond W., Jr. What Proverb Understanding Reveals about How People Think. Psychological Bulletin 118, 1 (1995 July): 133-54.

Grobler, Gerhardus M. M. The Right to Be Understood: Interpreting the Proverb in an African Society. Proverbium 11 (1994): 93-102.

Grzybek, Peter. Foundations of Semiotic Proverb Study. Wise Words: Essays on the Proverb. New York. 1994. 31-70.

Haase, Donald P. Is Seeing Believing? Proverbs and the Film Adaptation of a Fairy Tale. Proverbium 7 (1990): 89-104

Harnish, Robert M. Communicating with Proverbs. Communication and Cognition 26, 3-4 (1993): 265-89.

Hasan-Rokem, Galit. The Pragmatics of Proverbs: How the Proverb Gets Its Meaning. Exceptional Language and Linguistics. New York, 1982. 169-173. Series title:  Perspectives in Neurolinguistics, Neuropsychology, and Psycholinguistics.

Herzfeld, Anita. The Pragmatics of Proverb Performance in Limonese Creole. 1990 Mid-America Linguistics Conference Papers. Lawrence. 1991. 151-66.

Honeck, Richard P. Proverbs and the Complete Mind. Metaphor and Symbolic Activity 11, 3 (1996): 217-32. Abstract.

Honeck, Richard P. Proverbs: The Extended Conceptual Base and Great Chain Metaphor Theories. Metaphor and Symbolic Activity 9, 2 (1994): 85-112. Abstract.

Honeck, Richard P. A Proverb in Mind: The Cognitive Science of Proverbial Wit and Wisdom.  Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1997. Abstract.

Iscla, Luis, SJ. English Proverbs and Their Near Equivalents in Spanish, French, Italian and Latin. New York. 1995. Series title:  Berkeley Insights in Linguistics and Semiotics 14.

Jackson-Lowman, Huberta. Using Afrikan Proverbs to Provide for Afrikan-American Parental Values. Language, Rhythm, and Sound: Black Popular Cultures into the Twenty-First Century. Pittsburgh, PA: ?, 1997. 74-89.

Kemper, Susan. Comprehension and the Interpretation of Proverbs. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 10 (1981): 179-198.

Krikmann, Arvo. The Great Chain Metaphor: An Open Sesame for Proverb Semantics? Proverbium 11 (1994): 117-24.

Krikmann, Arvo. Some Additional Aspects to Semantic Indefiniteness of Proverbs. Proverbium 2 (1985): 58-85.

Lieber, Michael D. Analogic Ambiguity: A Paradox of Proverb Usage. Wise Words: Essays on the Proverb. New York. 1994. 99-126.

Litovkina, Anna Tothne. A Few Aspects of a Semiotic Approach to Proverbs, with Special Reference to Two Important American Publications. Semiotica 108, 3-4 (1996): 307-80.

Mandala, James Di Martini. The Interpretation of Proverbs: A Cognitive Perspective. Ann Arbor, MI: Dissertation Abstracts International 48, 12 (1988 June): 3685B-3686B.

Messenger, John C., Jr. The Role of Proverbs in a Nigerian Judicial System. Folk Law: Essays in the Theory and Practice of Lex non Scripta, I & II. Madison. 1995. 421-32.

Monye, Ambrose A. Kinds of Relationships in Igbo Proverbs Usage. Africana Marburgensia 18, 1 (1985): 72-79.

Monye, Ambrose A. On Why People Use Proverbs. Africana Marburgensia 23, 1 (1990): 3-11.

Murphy, William Peter. A semantic and logical analysis of Kpelle proverb metaphors of secrecy. Dissertation, 1976.

Nguyen, Nguyen. Proverbs as Psychological Interpretations among Vietnamese. Asian Folklore Studies (Japan) 50, 2 (1991): 311-18.

Nippold, Marilyn A. Proverb Comprehension in Context: A Developmental Study with Children and Adolescents. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 31, 1 (1988 Mar): 19-28.

Nippold, Marilyn A. Proverb Explanation through the Lifespan: A Developmental Study of Adolescents and Adults. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 40, 2 (April 1997): 245-53.

Norrick, Neal R. Proverbial Emotions: How Proverbs Encode and Evaluate Emotion. Proverbium 11 (1994): 207-15.

Norrick, Neal R. Proverbial Perlocutions: How to Do Things with Proverbs. Wise Words: Essays on the Proverb. New York. 1994. 143-57.

Obeng, Samuel Gyasi. The Proverb as a Mitigating and Politeness Strategy in Akan Discourse. Anthropological Linguistics 38, 3 (1996 Fall): 521-49.

Paczolay, Gyula. Proverbs and Reality. Proverbium 13 (1996): 281-97.

Parker, Carolyn A. Social Balance and the Threat of Revenge: The Message of Some Swahili Proverbs. Greenfield Review 8, 1-2 (1980): 163-75.

Penfield, Joyce. Proverbs: Metaphors That Teach. Anthropological Quarterly 61, 3 (1988 July): 119-128.

Rogers, Tim B. Proverbs as Psychological Theories . . .: Or, Is It the Other Way Around? Canadian Psychology 31, 3 (1990): 195-217.

Rogers, Tim B. Psychological Approaches to Proverbs: A Treatise on the Import of Context. Wise Words: Essays on the Proverb. New York. 1994. 159-81.

Sarma, Nabin Ch. Study of a Few Assamese Proverbs from the Contextual Points of View. Folklore (Calcutta) 27, 4 (310) (1986 Apr): 71-77.

Stanciu, Dumitru. A Possible Model for the Construction of Proverbs. Proverbium 13 (1996): 321-30.

Temple, Jon G. Literal versus Nonliteral Reminders for Proverbs. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 30, 1 (Jan 1992): 67-70.

Turner, Nigel E. The Role of Literal Meaning in Proverb Comprehension. Ann Arbor, MI: Dissertation Abstracts International 56, 10 (1996 Apr): 5810B.

Whaley, Bryan B. When 'Try, Try Again' Turns to 'You're Beating a Dead Horse': The Rhetorical Characteristics of Proverbs and Their Potential for Influencing Therapeutic Change. Metaphor and Symbolic Activity 8, 2 (1993): 127-39.

Yankah, Kwesi. Proverb Rhetoric and African Judicial Processes: The Untold Story. Journal of American Folklore 99, 393 (1986 July-Sept): 280-303.

Yankah, Kwesi. Toward a Performance-Centered Theory of the Proverb. Critical Arts (South Africa) 3, 1 (1983): 29-43.

Yankah, Kwesi. The proverb in the context of Akan rhetoric: a theory of proverb praxis. New York: Peter Lang, 1989.

Yusuf, Yisa Kehinde. The Ethical Value of Women's Speech in Yoruba Proverbs. Proverbium 11 (1994): 283-91.

Zilberstein, Dvora. The Proverb in Discourse: A Pragmatic Approach. Hebrew Linguistics (Israel) 28-30 (1990 Jan): 181-95.

Psychological Testing and Treatment  

Berman, Louis A. Using Proverbs to Test Readiness for College Composition. Proverbium 7 (1990): 19-36.

Brown, Malrie D. The use of proverb interpretation on the routine mental status examination to evaluate abstract thought : is it a useful means of assessing the higher cortical functions of the black patient? Dissertation, 1987 UCSD.

Brundage, Shelley Brown. Comparison of Proverb Interpretations Provided by Non-Brain-Damaged Adults, Aphasic Adults, Right-Hemisphere-Damaged Adults, and Adults with Probable Dementia. Ann Arbor, MI: Dissertation Abstracts International 54, 12 (1994 June): 6160B.

Chambers, John Wayne, Jr. Proverb Comprehension in Children. Ann Arbor, MI: Dissertation Abstracts International 38 (1978): 3363B-64B.

Chiesa, Alessandra Maria. Translation and Preliminary Normative Data for the Biber Cognitive Estimation Scale and the California Proverbs Tests with a Puerto Rican Population. Ann Arbor, MI: Dissertation Abstracts International, Section B.  57, 9 (March 1997): 5909.

England, Juliana Elizabeth. Abstract Responding to a Proverbs Test by LCVA, RCVA, and Control Subjects. Ann Arbor, MI: Dissertation Abstracts International 47, 6 (1986 Dec): 2400B.

Mieder, Wolfgang. The Use of Proverbs in Psychological Testing. Journal of the Folklore Institute 15 (1978): 45-55.

Penn, Nolan E. Familiarity with Proverbs and Performance of a Black Population on Gorham's Proverbs Test. Perceptual and Motor Skills 66, 3 (1988 June): 847-854.

Resnick, David Arthur. The Development of Children's Comprehension of Proverbs. Ann Arbor, MI: Dissertation Abstracts International 38 (1977): 2348B.

Rogers, Tim B. The Use of Slogans, Colloquialisms, and Proverbs in the Treatment of Substance Addiction: A Psychological Application of Proverbs. Proverbium 6 (1989): 103-12.

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