Sample Essay Harvard Referencing Style

The example paragraph below demonstrates how to integrate Harvard references into your writing, and how to format a Harvard style reference list.

For more information on how to reference, see the Student Services STUDYSmarter referencing guides, in particular the guides on quoting and paraphrasing. Note that these guides are not Harvard-specific; rather, they provide a general overview on the principles and practices of academic referencing.


Peggy Johnson defines collection development as “the thoughtful process of developing a library collection in response to institutional priorities and community or user needs and interests” (Johnson 2009, p. 1). According to Johnson (2009, p. 1), collection development forms part of the broader concept of collection management, which involves “ an expanded suite of decisions about weeding, cancelling serials, storage, and preservation”. Traditional collection development involves selecting individual titles that will best meet the requirements of the library users. In an academic library environment, the selection of titles should primarily support the teaching, learning and research needs of the university staff, students and researchers (University of Western Australia Library 2015). However, the practice of bundling journal titles into one large all-encompassing package has meant that collection development decisions are now often made on a publisher level, rather than on a title-by-title basis (Ball, cited in Carlson & Pope 2009, p. 385). In this sense aggregator packages are similar in nature to monographic blanket orders, where a library agrees to purchase everything that a particular publisher has published (Thompson, Wilder & Button 2000, p. 214). The beauty of these large aggregator packages is that they allow library users to access a vast number of online scholarly resources through the click of a mouse button. 


Reference List

Carlson, A & Pope, BM 2009, ‘The “Big Deal”: A survey of how libraries are responding and what the alternatives are’, The Serials
, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 380-398. Available from: Taylor & Francis Online. [28 September 2015].

Johnson, P 2009, Fundamentals of collection development and management, 2nd edn, ALA Editions, Chicago.

Thompson, K, Wilder, R & Button, L 2000, ‘Impact of bundled databases on serials acquisitions in academic libraries’, The Serials
, vol. 38, no. 3-4, pp. 213-218. Available from: Taylor & Francis Online. [28 September 2015].

University of Western Australia Library 2015, Collection management principles and policies. Available from:
 [14 October 2015].

Harvard is a commonly used method of referencing, which uses the Author-Date system.


Which Harvard style?

Note: Harvard has been adapted to suit many different publication styles. The style used in this guide follows the standard prescribed by the following manual:
Snooks & Co. 2002, Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn. John Wiley & Sons, Milton, Qld.This is the official style followed in most Australian Government publications.


Which style does my Faculty or School use?

Some Schools require a different style from the one outlined here. Use the citation style  required by your Faculty or School.


Why Reference your sources?

It is important to reference the sources you use for essays and reports, so that the reader can follow your arguments and check your sources.  It is essential to correctly acknowledge the author when quoting or using other people’s ideas in your work.


How do I use Harvard?



  1. In-text citations are made like this


Paraphrasing and in-text citations

The point made by an analytic philosopher (O'Connor 1969, p. 32) is that values cannot be justified in this way. However Kneller (1963b, p. 102) insists that the theorist will inevitably be involved in value claims. 


Note: Page, chapter or section numbers may be included in the in-text citation if the cited work is long and the information helps the reader locate the relevant information.

When the authors name is mentioned in-text (eg. Kneller in the example above) add year and page numbers only to the in-text reference.

Entries that have the same author and year are noted by adding a, b, c etc to the year, both in-text eg. Kneller (1963b, p. 102) and in the Reference List (see entries in Reference List below).


Direct quotes and in-text citations 

‘Having a solid plan as part of research design is essential’ (Hatch 2002, p. 46).
Hatch (2002, p. 46) believes ‘having a solid plan as part of research design is essential.’


 Note: Always include page numbers when citing a quotation and enclose the quote in single quotation marks.


Block quotes and in-text citations


Inductive analysis is discussed:
            Inductive thinking proceeds from the specific to the general.  Understandings are generated by starting with specfic
          elements and finding connections among them.  To argue inductively is to begin with particular pieces of evidence,
          then pull them together into a meaningful whole.  Inductive data analysis is a search for patterns of meaningful data so
          the general statements about phenomena under investigation can be made (Hatch 2002, p. 161).

 Note: Place a quotation of 30 or more words in your work as a free standing block.  These quotes are usually indented eg. 5 spaces and are in a smaller font eg. 1 pt smaller than the surrounding text.  Do not enclose the quote in quotation marks.


  1. Reference lists, at the end of your paper, are made like this (arrange your list alphabetically by author).

Hatch, JA 2002, Doing qualitative research in education settings. State of , .

Kneller, JP 1963a, Is logical thinking logical? Ponsonby & Partridge, Dubbo.

-----1963b, ‘Thinking and logical interaction’, Brain Logic, vol. 257, no. 4, pp. 54-62.

O'Connor, DJ 1969, An introduction to the philosophy of education, Routledge & Kegan Paul, .

[See the sample Reference list].

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