Locke Essay Concerning Human Understanding Book 2 Chapter 27 Review

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Preface and IntroductionBOOK I: Neither Principles nor Ideas Are Innate
  • Chapter I: No Innate Speculative Principles
    • 1. The way shown how we come by any knowledge, sufficient to prove...
    • 2. General assent the great argument.
    • 3. Universal consent proves nothing innate.
    • 4. "What is, is," and "It is impossible for the same thing to be and...
    • 5. Not on the mind naturally imprinted, because not known to...
    • 6. That men know them when they come to the use of reason, answered.
    • 7. Doubtful expressions, that have scarce any signification, go...
    • 8. If reason discovered them, that would not prove them innate.
    • 9. It is false that reason discovers them.
    • 10. No use made of reasoning in the discovery of these two maxims.
    • 11. And if there were, this would prove them not innate.
    • 12. The coming to the use of reason not the time we come to know...
    • 13. By this they are not distinguished from other knowable truths.
    • 14. If coming to the use of reason were the time of their...
    • 15. The steps by which the mind attains several truths.
    • 16. Assent to supposed innate truths depends on having clear and...
    • 17. Assenting as soon as proposed and understood, proves them not...
    • 18. If such an assent be a mark of innate, then "that one and two...
    • 19. Such less general propositions known before these universal...
    • 20. "One and one equal to Two, &c.
    • 21. These maxims not being known sometimes till proposed, proves...
    • 22. Implicitly known before proposing, signifies that the mind is...
    • 23. The argument of assenting on first hearing, is upon a false...
    • 24. Not innate, because not universally assented to.
    • 25. These maxims not the first known.
    • 26. And so not innate.
    • 27. Not innate, because they appear least where what is innate shows...
    • 28. Recapitulation.
  • Chapter II: No Innate Practical Principles
    • 1. No moral principles so clear and so generally received as the...
    • 2. Faith and justice not owned as principles by all men.
    • 3. Objection: "though men deny them in their practice, yet they...
    • 4. Moral rules need a proof, ergo not innate.
    • 5. Instance in keeping compacts.
    • 6. Virtue generally approved, not because innate, but because...
    • 7. Men's actions convince us that the rule of virtue is not their...
    • 8. Conscience no proof of any innate moral rule.
    • 9. Instances of enormities practised without remorse.
    • 10. Men have contrary practical principles.
    • 11. Whole nations reject several moral rules.
    • 12. The generally allowed breach of a rule, proof that it is not...
    • 13. If men can be ignorant of what is innate, certainty is not...
    • 14. Those who maintain innate practical principles tell us not...
    • 15. Lord Herbert's innate principles examined.
    • 16. These five either not all, or more than all, if there are any.
    • 17. The supposed marks wanting.
    • 18. Of little use if they were innate.
    • 19. Scarce possible that God should engrave principles in words of...
    • 20. Objection, "innate principles may be corrupted," answered.
    • 21. Contrary principles in the world.
    • 22. How men commonly come by their principles.
    • 23. Principles supposed innate because we do not remember when we...
    • 24. How such principles come to be held.
    • 25. Further explained.
    • 26. A worship of idols.
    • 27. Principles must be examined.
  • Chapter III: Other considerations concerning Innate Principles,
    • 1. Principles not innate, unless their ideas be innate.
    • 2. Ideas, especially those belonging to principles, not born with...
    • 3. "Impossibility" and "identity" not innate ideas.
    • 4. "Identity," an idea not innate.
    • 5. What makes the same man? Nor let any one think that the questions...
    • 6. Whole and part, not innate ideas.
    • 7. Idea of worship not innate.
    • 8. Idea of God not innate.
    • 9. The name of God not universal or obscure in meaning.
    • 10. Ideas of God and idea of fire.
    • 11. Idea of God not innate.
    • 12. Suitable to God's goodness, that all men should have an idea...
    • 13. Ideas of God various in different men.
    • 14. Contrary and inconsistent ideas of God under the same name.
    • 15. Gross ideas of God.
    • 16. Idea of God not innate although wise men of all nations come...
    • 17. Odd, low, and pitiful ideas of God common among men.
    • 18. If the idea of God be not innate, no other can be supposed...
    • 19. Idea of substance not innate.
    • 20. No propositions can be innate, since no ideas are innate.
    • 21. No innate ideas in the memory.
    • 22. Principles not innate, because of little use or little...
    • 23. Difference of men's discoveries depends upon the different...
    • 24. Men must think and know for themselves.
    • 25. Whence the opinion of innate principles.
    • 26. Conclusion.
    BOOK II: Of Ideas
  • Chapter I: Of Ideas in general, and their Original
    • 1. Idea is the object of thinking.
    • 2. All ideas come from sensation or reflection.
    • 3. The objects of sensation one source of ideas.
    • 4. The operations of our minds, the other source of them.
    • 5. All our ideas are of the one or the other of these.
    • 6. Observable in children.
    • 7. Men are differently furnished with these, according to the...
    • 8. Ideas of reflection later, because they need attention.
    • 9. The soul begins to have ideas when it begins to perceive.
    • 10. The soul thinks not always; for this wants proofs.
    • 11. It is not always conscious of it.
    • 12. If a sleeping man thinks without knowing it, the sleeping and...
    • 13. Impossible to convince those that sleep without dreaming, that...
    • 14. That men dream without remembering it, in vain urged.
    • 15. Upon this hypothesis, the thoughts of a sleeping man ought to be...
    • 16. On this hypothesis, the soul must have ideas not derived from...
    • 17. If I think when I know it not, nobody else can know it.
    • 18. How knows any one that the soul always thinks? For if it be...
    • 19. "That a man should be busy in thinking, and yet not retain it...
    • 20. No ideas but from sensation and reflection, evident, if we...
    • 21. State of a child in the mother's womb.
    • 22. The mind thinks in proportion to the matter it gets from...
    • 23. A man begins to have ideas when he first has sensation.
    • 24. The original of all our knowledge.
    • 25. In the reception of simple ideas, the understanding is for the...
  • Chapter II: Of Simple Ideas
  • Chapter III: Of Simple Ideas of Sense
  • Chapter IV: Idea of Solidity
  • Chapter V: Of Simple Ideas of Divers Senses
  • Chapter VI: Of Simple Ideas of Reflection
  • Chapter VII: Of Simple Ideas of both Sensation and Reflection
  • Chapter VIII: Some further considerations concerning
  • Chapter IX: Of Perception
  • Chapter X: Of Retention
  • Chapter XI: Of Discerning, and other operations of the Mind
  • Chapter XII: Of Complex Ideas
  • Chapter XIII: Complex Ideas of Simple Modes:-
  • Chapter XIV: Idea of Duration and its Simple Modes
    • 1. Duration is fleeting extension.
    • 2. Its idea from reflection on the train of our ideas.
    • 3. Nature and origin of the idea of duration.
    • 4. Proof that its idea is got from reflection on the train of our...
    • 5. The idea of duration applicable to things whilst we sleep.
    • 6. The idea of succession not from motion.
    • 7. Very slow motions unperceived.
    • 8. Very swift motions unperceived.
    • 9. The train of ideas has a certain degree of quickness.
    • 10. Real succession in swift motions without sense of succession.
    • 11. In slow motions.
    • 12. This train, the measure of other successions.
    • 13. The mind cannot fix long on one invariable idea.
    • 14. Proof.
    • 15. The extent of our power over the succession of our ideas.
    • 16. Ideas, however made, include no sense of motion.
    • 17. Time is duration set out by measures.
    • 18. A good measure of time must divide its whole duration into equal...
    • 19. The revolutions of the sun and moon, the properest measures of...
    • 20. But not by their motion, but periodical appearances.
    • 21. No two parts of duration can be certainly known to be equal.
    • 22. Time not the measure of motion.
    • 23. Minutes, hours, days, and years not necessary measures of...
    • 24. Our measure of time applicable to duration before time.
    • 25. As we can measure space in our thoughts where there is no...
    • 26. The assumption that the world is neither boundless nor...
    • 27. Eternity.
    • 28. Our measures of duration dependent on our ideas.
    • 29. The duration of anything need not be co-existent with the motion...
    • 30. Infinity in duration.
    • 31. Origin of our ideas of duration, and of the measures of it.
  • Chapter XV: Ideas of Duration and Expansion, considered together
  • Chapter XVI: Idea of Number
  • Chapter XVII: Of Infinity
    • 1. Infinity, in its original intention, attributed to space,...
    • 2. The idea of finite easily got.
    • 3. How we come by the idea of infinity.
    • 4. Our idea of space boundless.
    • 5. And so of duration.
    • 6. Why other ideas are not capable of infinity.
    • 7. Difference between infinity of space, and space infinite.
    • 8. We have no idea of infinite space.
    • 9. Number affords us the clearest idea of infinity.
    • 10. Our different conceptions of the infinity of number contrasted...
    • 11. How we conceive the infinity of space.
    • 12. Infinite divisibility.
    • 13. No positive idea of infinity.
    • 14. How we cannot have a positive idea of infinity in quantity.
    • 15. What is positive, what negative, in our idea of infinite.
    • 16. We have no positive idea of an infinite duration.
    • 17. No complete idea of eternal being.
    • 18. No positive idea of infinite space.
    • 19. What is positive, what negative, in our idea of infinite.
    • 20. Some think they have a positive idea of eternity, and not of...
    • 21. Supposed positive ideas of infinity, cause of mistakes.
    • 22. All these are modes of ideas got from sensation and...
  • Chapter XVIII: Other Simple Modes
  • Chapter XIX: Of the Modes of Thinking
  • Chapter XX: Of Modes of Pleasure and Pain
    • 1. Pleasure and pain, simple ideas.
    • 2. Good and evil, what.
    • 3. Our passions moved by good and evil.
    • 4. Love.
    • 5. Hatred.
    • 6. Desire.
    • 7. Joy is a delight of the mind, from the consideration of the...
    • 8. Sorrow is uneasiness in the mind, upon the thought of a good...
    • 9. Hope is that pleasure in the mind, which every one finds in...
    • 10. Fear is an uneasiness of the mind, upon the thought of future...
    • 11. Despair is the thought of the unattainableness of any good,...
    • 12. Anger is uneasiness or discomposure of the mind, upon the...
    • 13. Envy is an uneasiness of the mind, caused by the consideration...
    • 14. What passions all men have.
    • 15. Pleasure and pain, what.
    • 16. Removal or lessening of either.
    • 17. Shame.
    • 18. These instances to show how our ideas of the passions are got...
  • Chapter XXI: Of Power
    • 1. This idea how got.
    • 2. Power, active and passive.
    • 3. Power includes relation.
    • 4. The clearest idea of active power had from spirit.
    • 5. Will and understanding two powers in mind or spirit.
    • 6. Faculties, not real beings.
    • 7. Whence the ideas of liberty and necessity.
    • 8. Liberty, what.
    • 9. Supposes understanding and will.
    • 10. Belongs not to volition.
    • 11. Voluntary opposed to involuntary, not to necessary.
    • 12. Liberty, what.
    • 13. Necessity, what.
    • 14. Liberty belongs not to the will.
    • 15. Volition.
    • 16. Powers, belonging to agents.
    • 17. How the will, instead of the man, is called free.
    • 18. This way of talking causes confusion of thought.
    • 19. Powers are relations, not agents.
    • 20. Liberty belongs not to the will.
    • 21. But to the agent, or man.
    • 22. In respect of willing, a man is not free.
    • 23. How a man cannot be free to will.
    • 24. Liberty is freedom to execute what is willed.
    • 25. The will determined by something without it.
    • 26. The ideas of liberty and volition must be defined.
    • 27. Freedom.
    • 28. What volition and action mean.
    • 29. What determines the will.
    • 30. Will and desire must not be confounded.
    • 31. Uneasiness determines the will.
    • 32. Desire is uneasiness.
    • 33. The uneasiness of desire determines the will.
    • 34. This is the spring of action.
    • 35. The greatest positive good determines not the will, but...
    • 36. Because the removal of uneasiness is the first step to...
    • 37. Because uneasiness alone is present.
    • 38. Because all who allow the joys of heaven possible, pursue them...
    • 39. But any great uneasiness is never neglected.
    • 40. Desire accompanies all uneasiness.
    • 41. The most pressing uneasiness naturally determines the will.
    • 42. All desire happiness.
    • 43. Happiness and misery, good and evil, what they are.
    • 44. What good is desired, what not.
    • 45. Why the greatest good is not always desired.
    • 46. Why not being desired, it moves not the will.
    • 47. Due consideration raises desire.
    • 48. The power to suspend the prosecution of any desire makes way for...
    • 49. To be determined by our own judgment, is no restraint to...
    • 50. The freest agents are so determined.
    • 51. A constant determination to a pursuit of happiness no abridgment...
    • 52. The necessity of pursuing true happiness the foundation of...
    • 53. Power to suspend.
    • 54. Government of our passions the right improvement of liberty.
    • 55. How men come to pursue different, and often evil, courses.
    • 56. All men seek happiness, but not of the same sort.
    • 57. Power to suspend volition explains responsibility for ill...
    • 58. Why men choose what makes them miserable.
    • 59. The causes of this.
    • 60. Our judgment of present good or evil always right.
    • 61. Our wrong judgments have regard to future good and evil only.
    • 62. From a wrong judgment of what makes a necessary part of their...
    • 63. A more particular account of wrong judgments.
    • 64. No one chooses misery willingly, but only by wrong judgment.
    • 65. Men may err in comparing present and future.
    • 66. Causes of our judging amiss when we compare present pleasure and...
    • 67. Absent good unable to counterbalance present uneasiness.
    • 68. Wrong judgment in considering consequences of actions.
    • 1. When we judge that so much evil does not really depend on them as...
    • 2. When we judge that, though the consequence be of that moment, yet...
    • 69. Causes of this.
    • 70. Wrong judgment of what is necessary to our happiness.
    • 71. We can change the agreeableness or disagreeableness in things.
    • 72. Preference of vice to virtue a manifest wrong judgment.
    • 73. Recapitulation- liberty of indifferency.
    • 74. Active and passive power, in motions and in thinking.
    • 75. Summary of our original ideas.
  • Chapter XXII: Of Mixed Modes
  • Chapter XXIII: Of our Complex Ideas of Substances
    • 1. Ideas of particular substances, how made.
    • 2. Our obscure idea of substance in general.
    • 3. Of the sorts of substances.
    • 4. No clear or distinct idea of substance in general.
    • 5. As clear an idea of spiritual substance as of corporeal...
    • 6. Our ideas of particular sorts of substances.
    • 7. Their active and passive powers a great part of our complex ideas...
    • 8. And why.
    • 9. Three sorts of ideas make our complex ones of corporeal...
    • 10. Powers thus make a great part of our complex ideas of particular...
    • 11. The now secondary qualities of bodies would disappear, if we...
    • 12. Our faculties for discovery of the qualities and powers of...
    • 13. Conjecture about the corporeal organs of some spirits.
    • 14. Our specific ideas of substances.
    • 15. Our ideas of spiritual substances, as clear as of bodily...
    • 16. No idea of abstract substance either in body or spirit.
    • 17. Cohesion of solid parts and impulse, the primary ideas...
    • 18. Thinking and motivity the primary ideas peculiar to spirit.
    • 19. Spirits capable of motion.
    • 20. Proof of this.
    • 21. God immoveable, because infinite.
    • 22. Our complex idea of an immaterial spirit and our complex idea of...
    • 23. Cohesion of solid parts in body as hard to be conceived as...
    • 24. Not explained by an ambient fluid.
    • 25. We can as little understand how the parts cohere in extension,...
    • 26. The cause of coherence of atoms in extended substances...
    • 27. The supposed pressure brought to explain cohesion is...
    • 28. Communication of motion by impulse, or by thought, equally...
    • 29. Summary.
    • 30. Our idea of spirit and our idea of body compared.
    • 31. The notion of spirit involves no more difficulty in it than that...
    • 32. We know nothing of things beyond our simple ideas of them.
    • 33. Our complex idea of God.
    • 34. Our complex idea of God as infinite.
    • 35. God in his own essence incognisable.
    • 36. No ideas in our complex ideas of spirits, but those got from...
    • 37. Recapitulation.
  • Chapter XXIV: Of Collective Ideas of Substances
  • Chapter XXV: Of Relation
  • Chapter XXVI: Of Cause and Effect, and other Relations
  • Chapter XXVII: Of Identity and Diversity
    • 1. Wherein identity consists.
    • 2. Identity of substances.
    • 3. Principium Individuationis.
    • 4. Identity of vegetables.
    • 5. Identity of animals.
    • 6. The identity of man.
    • 7. Idea of identity suited to the idea it is applied to.
    • 8. Same man.
    • 9. Personal identity.
    • 10. Consciousness makes personal identity.
    • 11. Personal identity in change of substance.
    • 12. Personality in change of substance.
    • 13. Whether in change of thinking substances there can be one...
    • 14. Whether, the same immaterial substance remaining, there can be...
    • 15. The body, as well as the soul, goes to the making of a man.
    • 16. Consciousness alone unites actions into the same person.
    • 17. Self depends on consciousness, not on substance.
    • 18. Persons, not substances, the objects of reward and punishment.
    • 19. Which shows wherein personal identity consists.
    • 20. Absolute oblivion separates what is thus forgotten from the...
    • 21. Difference between identity of man and of person.
    • 22. But is not a man drunk and sober the same person? why else is he...
    • 23. Consciousness alone unites remote existences into one person.
    • 24. Not the substance with which the consciousness may be united.
    • 25. Consciousness unites substances, material or spiritual, with the...
    • 26. "Person" a forensic term.
    • 27. Suppositions that look strange are pardonable in our...
    • 28. The difficulty from ill use of names.
    • 29. Continuance of that which we have made to he our complex idea of...
  • Chapter XXVIII: Of Other Relations
  • Chapter XXIX: Of Clear and Obscure, Distinct and Confused Ideas
  • Chapter XXX: Of Real and Fantastical Ideas
  • Chapter XXXI: Of Adequate and Inadequate Ideas
    • 1. Adequate ideas are such as perfectly represent their...
    • 2. Simple ideas all adequate.
    • 3. Modes are all adequate.
    • 4. Modes, in reference to settled names, may be inadequate.
    • 5. Because then meant, in propriety of speech, to correspond to...
    • 6. Ideas of substances, as referred to real essences, not...
    • 7. Because men know not the real essences of substances.
    • 8. Ideas of substances, when regarded as collections of their...
    • 9. Their powers usually make up our complex ideas of substances.
    • 10. Substances have innumerable powers not contained in our...
    • 11. Ideas of substances, being got only by collecting their...
    • 12. Simple ideas, ektupa, and adequate.
    • 13. Ideas of substances are ektupa, and inadequate.
    • 14. Ideas of modes and relations are archetypes and cannot be...
  • Chapter XXXII: Of True and False Ideas
    • 1. Truth and falsehood properly belong to propositions, not to...
    • 2. Ideas and words may be said to be true, inasmuch as they really...
    • 3. No idea, as an appearance in the mind, either true or false.
    • 4. Ideas referred to anything extraneous to them may be true or...
    • 5. Other men's ideas; real existence; and supposed real essences,...
    • 6. The cause of such reference.
    • 7. Names of things supposed to carry in them knowledge of their...
    • 8. How men suppose that their ideas must correspond to things, and...
    • 9. Simple ideas may be false, in reference to others of the same...
    • 10. Ideas of mixed modes most liable to be false in this sense.
    • 11. Or at least to be thought false.
    • 12. And why.
    • 13. As referred to real existence, none of our ideas can be false...
    • 14. Simple ideas in this sense not false, and why.
    • 15. Though one man's idea of blue should be different from...
    • 16. Simple ideas can none of them be false in respect of real...
    • 17. Modes not false cannot be false in reference to essences of...
    • 18. Ideas of substances may be false in reference to existing...
    • 19. Truth or falsehood always supposes affirmation or negation.
    • 20. Ideas in themselves neither true nor false.
    • 21. But are false- when judged agreeable to another man's idea,...
    • 22. When judged to agree to real existence, when they do not.
    • 23. When judged adequate, without being so.
    • 24. When judged to represent the real essence.
    • 25. Ideas, when called false.
    • 26. More properly to be called right or wrong.
  • Chapter XXXIII: Of the Association of IdeasBOOK III: Of Words
  • Chapter I: Of Words or Language in General
  • Chapter II: Of the Signification of Words
  • Chapter III: Of General Terms
  • Chapter IV: Of the Names of Simple Ideas
    • 1. Names of simple ideas, modes, and substances, have each something...
    • 2. Names of simple ideas, and of substances intimate real existence.
    • 3. Names of simple ideas and modes signify always both real and...
    • 4. Names of simple ideas are undefinable.
    • 5. If all names were definable, it would be a process in...
    • 6. What a definition is.
    • 7. Simple ideas, why undefinable.
    • 8. Instances: scholastic definitions of motion.
    • 9. Modern definitions of motion.
    • 10. Definitions of light.
    • 11. Simple ideas, why undefinable, further explained.
    • 12. The contrary shown in complex ideas, by instances of a statue...
    • 13. Colours indefinable to the born-blind.
    • 14. Complex ideas definable only when the simple ideas of which they...
    • 15. Names of simple ideas of less doubtful meaning than those of...
    • 16. Simple ideas have few ascents in linea praedicamentali.
    • 17. Names of simple ideas not arbitrary, but perfectly taken from...
  • Chapter V: Of the Names of Mixed Modes and Relations
    • 1. Mixed modes stand for abstract ideas, as other general names.
    • 2. First, The abstract ideas they stand for are made by the...
    • 3. Secondly, made arbitrarily, and without patterns.
    • 4. How this is done.
    • 6. Instances: murder, incest, stabbing.
    • 7. But still subservient to the end of language, and not made at...
    • 8. Whereof the intranslatable words of divers languages are a proof.
    • 9. This shows species to be made for communication.
    • 10. In mixed modes it is the name that ties the combination of...
    • 11. Suitable to this, we find that men speaking of mixed modes,...
    • 12. For the originals of our mixed modes, we look no further than...
    • 13. Their being made by the understanding without patterns, shows...
    • 14. Names of mixed modes stand always for their real essences, which...
    • 15. Why their names are usually got before their ideas.
    • 16. Reason of my being so large on this subject.
  • Chapter VI: Of the Names of Substances
    • 1. The common names of substances stand for sorts.
    • 2. The essence of each sort of substance is our abstract idea to...
    • 3. The nominal and real essence different.
    • 4. Nothing essential to individuals.
    • 5. The only essences perceived by us in individual substances are...
    • 6. Even the real essences of individual substances imply potential...
    • 7. The nominal essence bounds the species for us.
    • 8. The nature of species, as formed by us.
    • 9. Not the real essence, or texture of parts, which we know not.
    • 10. Not the substantial form, which we know less.
    • 11. That the nominal essence is that only whereby we distinguish...
    • 12. Of finite spirits there are probably numberless species, in a...
    • 13. The nominal essence that of the species, as conceived by us,...
    • 14. Difficulties in the supposition of a certain number of real...
    • 15. A crude supposition.
    • 16. Monstrous births.
    • 17. Are monsters really a distinct species? Thirdly, It ought to...
    • 18. Men can have no ideas of real essences.
    • 19. Our nominal essences of substances not perfect collections of...
    • 20. Hence names independent of real essences.
    • 21. But stand for such a collection of simple substances, as we have...
    • 22. Our abstract ideas are to us the measures of the species we...
    • 23. Species in animals not distinguished by generation.
    • 24. Not by substantial forms.
    • 25. The specific essences that are commonly made by men.
    • 26. Therefore very various and uncertain in the ideas of different...
    • 27. Nominal essences of particular substances are undetermined by...
    • 28. But not so arbitrary as mixed modes.
    • 29. Our nominal essences of substances usually consist of a few...
    • 30. Yet, imperfect as they thus are, they serve for common converse.
    • 31. Essences of species under the same name very different in...
    • 32. The more general our ideas of substances are, the more...
    • 33. This all accommodated to the end of speech.
    • 34. Instance in Cassowaries.
    • 35. Men determine the sorts of substances, which may be sorted...
    • 36. Nature makes the similitudes of substances.
    • 37. The manner of sorting particular beings the work of fallible...
    • 38. Each abstract idea, with a name to it, makes a nominal...
    • 39. How genera and species are related to naming.
    • 40. Species of artificial things less confused than natural.
    • 41. Artificial things of distinct species.
    • 42. Substances alone, of all our several sorts of ideas, have proper...
    • 43. Difficult to lead another by words into the thoughts of things...
    • 44. Instances of mixed modes named kinneah and niouph.
    • 45. These words, kinneah and niouph, by degrees grew into common...
    • 46. Instances of a species of substance named Zahab.
    • 47. This piece of matter, thus denominated zahab by Adam, being...
    • 48. The abstract ideas of substances always imperfect, and therefore...
    • 49. Therefore to fix their nominal species, a real essense is...
    • 50. Which supposition is of no use.
    • 51. Conclusion.
  • Chapter VII: Of Particles
  • Chapter VIII: Of Abstract and Concrete Terms
  • Chapter IX: Of the Imperfection of Words
    • 1. Words are used for recording and communicating our thoughts.
    • 2. Any words will serve for recording.
    • 3. Communication by words either for civil or philosophical...
    • 4. The imperfection of words is the doubtfulness or ambiguity of...
    • 5. Natural causes of their imperfection, especially in those that...
    • 6. The names of mixed modes doubtful.
    • 7. Secondly, because they have no standards in nature.
    • 8. Common use, or propriety not a sufficient remedy.
    • 9. The way of learning these names contributes also to their...
    • 10. Hence unavoidable obscurity in ancient authors.
    • 11. Names of substances of doubtful signification, because the ideas...
    • 12. Names of substances referred, to real essences that cannot be...
    • 13. To co-existing qualities, which are known but imperfectly.
    • 14. Thirdly, to co-existing qualities which are known but...
    • 15. With this imperfection, they may serve for civil, but not well...
    • 16. Instance, liquor.
    • 17. Instance, gold.
    • 18. The names of simple ideas the least doubtful.
    • 19. And next to them, simple modes.
    • 20. The most doubtful are the names of very compounded mixed modes...
    • 21. Why this imperfection charged upon words.
    • 22. This should teach us moderation in imposing our own sense of old...
    • 23. Especially of the Old and New Testament Scriptures.
  • Chapter X: Of the Abuse of Words
  • The most important source for understanding Locke’s account of identity, persons, and personal identity is Locke 2008. (References to the Essay are given by Book, chapter, and section; e.g., II.xxvii.9.) Locke offers his account of identity, persons, and personal identity in II.xxvii. Locke’s journal entries from 20 February 1682, reprinted in Locke 1936 and Locke 1683, document his early thoughts on the topic. Other particularly relevant chapters include “Of Power” (II.xxi), which he revised at the time he wrote II.xxvii; his chapters on modes, substances, and relations (II.xxii–xxiv, xxviii); and his chapter on general terms (III.iii). Among Locke’s other writings, his correspondence with Molyneux (Locke 1976–1989, Volumes 4 and 5) provides helpful insight into the composition of II.xxvii. Additionally, some parts of Locke’s correspondence with Edward Stillingfleet help to clarify Locke’s views (Locke 1824, Volume 3). Helpful background is further provided by Locke 2002, Locke 1997, and Locke 1988, especially the chapter “Of Property” (Locke 1988, II.v).

  • Locke, John. Identity of Persons. Bodleian Library MS Locke f. 7, 5 June 1683.

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    Locke’s first note concerning personal identity. Not as fully developed as his later theory, but Locke already rejects the view that personal identity consists in sameness of material particles or “corporeal spirits” and claims that personal identity consists in memory and knowledge of one’s past.

  • Locke, John. The Works of John Locke. 12th ed. 9 vols. London: Rivington, 1824.

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    Contains Locke’s major works, including posthumously published writings and letters. Volume 3 presents Locke’s letters to Stillingfleet.

  • Locke, John. An Early Draft of Locke’s Essay: Together with Excerpts from His Journals. Edited by R. I. Aaron and Jocelyn Gibb. Oxford: Clarendon, 1936.

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    Contains Draft A of Locke’s Essay, which was written in 1671, and excerpts from Locke’s journals that illuminate Locke’s arguments in the Essay. Locke’s journal entry from 20 February 1682 concerns immortality and provides relevant background to his account of personal identity.

  • Locke, John. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Edited by Peter H. Nidditch. Oxford: Clarendon, 2008.

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    Critical edition, based on the fourth edition (1700; originally published in 1690, second edition 1694). Best edition for students and scholars. The text is unmodernized and includes Locke’s own index. The chapter “Of Identity and Diversity” (II.xxvii, originally published in 1694) is reprinted in John Perry, ed., Personal Identity (University of California Press, 2008).

  • Locke, John. Two Treatises of Government. Edited by Peter Laslett. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

    DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511810268E-mail Citation »

    Originally published anonymously in 1690. This edition is prepared for students and contains a detailed introduction, helpful annotations to the text, suggested readings, an extensive bibliography, and an index.

  • Locke, John. The Correspondence of John Locke. 8 vols. Edited by E. S. De Beer. Oxford: Clarendon, 1976–1989.

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    Critical edition of Locke’s correspondence. Locke’s correspondence with Molyneux can be found in Volumes 4 and 5 and is reprinted in Mark Goldie, ed., John Locke: Selected Correspondence (Oxford University Press, 2002).

  • Locke, John. Political Essays. Edited by Mark Goldie. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

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    A helpful collection which makes easily accessible major and minor essays by Locke focused on political, moral, and religious themes. Locke did not write a systematic work on morality, and the essays included in this collection provide good insight into his thinking on the subject. Contains an introduction, bibliography, and index.

  • Locke, John. Writings on Religion. Edited by Victor Nuovo. Oxford: Clarendon, 2002.

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    Offers a good selection of Locke’s writings on religion, prepared for students and scholars. Nuovo’s helpful introduction outlines Locke’s deep interest in religion and theology and suggests that understanding Locke’s works in the context of his religious writings helps one to realize how many of Locke’s works bear upon his religious work.

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