When citing sources from the Internet, try adding as much of the following in the same sequence:
- Contributor information
- Title of work (quotes)
- Title of overall website (italicized)
- Version / Edition
- Publisher or sponsor of website
- Date of electronic publication
- Medium of publication (web)
- Date accessed
Sources published directly online
Sources published directly online have no in print originals, and therefore, it is important to include online publication information (i.e. the website publisher/sponsor and date of electronic publication). If unavailable, for online only sources, MLA7 suggests writing “N.p, n.d.” which means no publisher and no date, respectively. We believe adding such place holders is unnecessary, as it provides no information, and the lack of information can be assumed by its absence in the citation.
Citing an article from an online only resource
Friedland, Lois. “Top 10 Natural and Wildlife Adventure Travel Tips.” About.com. New York Times Company, 22 Sept. 2008. Web. 25 Sept. 2008.
Citing an entire website with no identifiable electronic publication date
EasyBib.com. Chegg, n.d. Web. 8. 2016.
Note: that newspaper and magazines websites are considered non-periodical, directly published online sources even if they have in-print copies. Follow the published directly online format.
Citing an article from an online only news source
Chen, Stephanie. “Growing up is Hard with Mom in Prison” CNN.com. Cable News Network, 7 May 2009. Web. 8 May 2009.
Note: Many times, the publisher’s name is the same as the online newspaper name.
Citing an article from an online newspaper
Shorto, Russell. “Going Dutch.” New York Times. New York Times, 3 May 2009. Web. 8 May 2009.
Note: Some online only sources have publication information unique to its source type, such as online only journals (volume & issue information). Follow the journal format and add information on the date accessed.
Citing an online only journal
Glotzer, Richard and Anne Federlein. “Miles that Bind: Commuter Marriage and Family Strength.” Michigan Family Review 12 (2007): 7-31. Web. 8 Apr. 2009.
Sources published indirectly online
As opposed to some sources published by a website (direct), other sources may be originally in print, or in another medium, and found online. Cite these sources as you would in their original form, and then add as much relevant web information as possible (website title, publisher / sponsor, date of electronic publication, medium, and date accessed). However, because the source was not published by the website, you do not have to use the “N.p, n.d.” placeholders if no website publisher or date of electronic publication is available.
Citing a book originally in print found online
Catton, Bruce. The Civil War. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2005. Google Book Search. Web. 15 May 2008.
Citing a newsletter found online with no page information
Puzzanchera, Charles. “Juvenile Arrests 2007.” Juvenile Justice Bulletin (Apr. 2009): n. pag. National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Web. 8 May 2009.
Citing a video found online
West, Kanye. Amazing. Prod. Hype Williams. Roc-A-Fella Records, 2009. YouTube. Web. 8 Feb. 2009.
Citing a painting viewed online
Picasso. Pablo. Three Musicians. 1921.ArtQuotes.net. Web. 5 Apr. 2006.
Citing a musical recording listened to online, with no discernible manufacturer or date
Park, Obadiah. “Hey Ya.” N.d. TheSixtyOne.com. Web. 10 Feb. 2007.
Citing a digital image
Hopper, Angie. Hedgehog. Digital Image.Flickr. Yahoo! Inc., 22 July 2007. Web. 26 Feb. 2013.
Note: In the above example the title is not in quotes because it is a description of the digital image. The URL was truncated to the search URL because it was too long and complicated.
Citing an originally in print journal article found in a database
Ahn, Hyunchul, and Kyoung-jae Kim. “Using Genetic Algorithms to Optimize Nearest Neighbors for Data Mining.” Annals of Operations Research 263.1 (2008): 5-18. Academic Search Premier. Web. 25 Sept. 2008.
Note: Sources found in online databases typically have been published elsewhere. Include as much as the original publication information as possible, and then add the database name, medium (web), and the date accessed.
Gather your information about each source. First you need to find out what kind of information you'll need from each type of source. If you're using a strict format that requires the copyright year of each book you refer to, it can be a pain to go through all of your research without knowing this, then have to go back, find all the books at the library, and determine the copyright date. Generally, it's better to record more information than less, just in case.
- Encyclopedias and dictionaries - Also get the full name of the author who wrote the entry (if it is given), the entry title, the number of volumes in the set, and the edition. Write down the volume you're using and the page numbers, unless the content is organized alphabetically.
- Anthologies and collections - Note the author and the title of individual work you're citing (poem, play, short story, etc.), the full names of any editors and compilers, and the page number(s). If the work was previously published in another book, record the information for the original source as described above.
Journal articles. Collect the journal title, article title, author name(s), volume and issue number of the journal, date of publication, and page numbers of the article. If it is an online journal, also record the page or paragraph numbers (if applicable), URL, and the date you accessed the site. If you are accessing the article through a database, also record the database name.
Magazine articles. Collect the author(s) names, title of the article, title of the magazine, volume number (if applicable), date of publication, and page numbers. For online magazines, get the date of access and URL as well. If you access the magazine through a database, find the vendor/supplier of database, database name, accession number of article (if applicable), and the date of access.
Newspaper articles. Collect the name of the author of the article, title of the article, name of the newspaper, date of publication, and the section, page and column location of the article. If the newspaper is online, get the URL and date of access, too. If you found the newspaper article in a database, write down the URL, date of access, database, and library through which article was accessed (name, city, and state).
Websites. Get the author's name (if given), title of work, group responsible for the site (if applicable), date site was last updated, date of access, and URL. If you have trouble finding everything except the last two items, you might want to reconsider the validity of this source. For postings, also get the title of posting, post number (if numbered), date of posting, URL the post was made to, and URL of message archives.
Government documents. If published by the US government, get the issuing agency, title of the document, number of the Congress, session number of Congress, place of publication, date of publication, document number (if given), and SuDoc number.
Letters and interviews. Collect the names of the author and recipient (or interviewer and interviewee), date written/conducted, name of collection, name of depository, and the depository's location.